1 powerpoint, 1 revision on assignment, 2 discussion questions, 4

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Homeland Security Assignment need to be done by Monday, 05/17/2021. No cut and paste/no plagarism. Original work only. Assignments are being checked in Turnitin for Similarity.  

CJ526: Academic and Professional Communication in Public Safety

Unit 2

Final Draft-Informative Essay

Review the specific components to the informative essay.

Write a 1,000–1,500-word (excluding title page and reference list) informative essay based on the topic you chose from the 
essay matrix
.

Include the following components in your essay:

· Introductory paragraph

· Include your thesis statement

· Include a discussion of at least three supporting points

· Supporting arguments and examples defending your position for each of the following:

· Body Section 1 (supporting point 1 fully presented)

· Body Section 2 (supporting point 2 fully presented)

· Body Section 3 (supporting point 3 fully presented)

· Conclusive summary

Your paper should also contain or properly apply five of the following elements:

1. Unity,

2. Clarity,

3. Coherence,

4. Emphasis, and

5. Correct grammar.

Format your work consistent with APA guidelines.

Include APA headings (at least level one).

Include a minimum of four peer-reviewed sources.

Cite your sources and include a reference list.

In addition to fulfilling the specifics of the assignment, a successful paper must also meet the following criteria:

· Include a title page and reference list in 10–12 point font (See Section 2.19 in the APA Manual for acceptable fonts and associated font size)

· Viewpoint and purpose should be clearly established and sustained

· Assignment should follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.)

· Writing should be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful

· Your work should display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics

· Appropriate citation style should be followed

You should also make sure to:

· Include a title page with full name, class name, section number, and date

· Include an introductory and concluding paragraph and demonstrate college-level communication through the composition of original materials in Standard English

· Use examples to support your discussion

· All sources must appear on a separate reference list at the end of your paper and cite within the body of your paper using APA format and citation style. For more information on APA guidelines, visit Academic Tools.

Directions for Submitting Your Assignment
Compose your assignment and save it in the following format: Course#_LastnameFirstname Unit # Assignment (example: CJ526_SmithJohn Unit 2 Assignment). Submit your assignment to the appropriate Dropbox by the end of the unit.

1

Renee Casandra Bridgeman

CJ526 Academic and Professional Communication in Public Safety

Unit 1 Assignment

May 11, 2021

Commented [DW1]: APA: The title page is incorrectly
formatted. See Section 2.3 and Figure 2.2 (Sample Student
Title Page) in the APA Manual.

2

Death Penalty

In the U.S,United States individual states have their laws concerning the death penalty for

violation of state laws. Reports indicate that the death penalty was first exercised in the U.S in

1608. Some of the prominent people who have been executed in the U.S. since the death penalty

was exercised include Captain George Kendall, Thomas Bird, Mary Surratt, Julius, and Ethel

Rosenberg. From the onset of the death penalty as capital punishment, there has been a heated

debate on the laws regarding the death penalty and how offenders accused of capital crimes,

murder, or treason are handled in courts in the U.S. Some sources have argued in support of the

current death penalty laws, while some have recommended adjustments to the laws. In the

United States, the death penalty has been in existence since the 1970s (Broughton, 2017).

Reports show that over 8500 people have been executed in the U.S for criminals such as treason,

murder, rape, and robbery with violence since the 1970s. Capital punishment is considered legal

punishment to alleviate first-degree murder in the United States. However, there are arguments

that there is not enough evidence to guarantee murder as a form of punishment. This paper will

present arguments on the need to abolish the death penalty in the United States. Some of the

arguments that will form the basis of this discussion include causes of death sentence to families,

the equitability of the process, and the validity and credibility of evidence used to convict the

offenders.

According to Broughton (2017), the death penalty should be abolished because it causes

families’ trauma. He further argues that capital punishment causes trauma, stigma, and grief in

convicted individuals’ families. Broughton (2017) argues that “When an individual enters the

death row, family members undergo extensive trauma, stigma, and grief.” The survey conducted

by Garrett, Jakubow & Desai (2017) on 50 families of offenders convicted of the death penalty

Formatted: Font: Bold

Commented [DW2]: APA The title of the paper is:

1: Bold
2: Centered
3: Title Case.

The title of the paper is a de facto level 1 heading.
Subsequent headings within the introduction should be
level 2-5 headings. The heading for the next and
subsequent sections should be a level 1 heading.

See Sections 2.27 and 2.4 and Figure 2.5 (Student
Paper) in the APA Manual.

Formatted: Font: Bold

Commented [DW3]: APA: When the United States is used
as a noun, it should be spelled out and not abbreviated.

Commented [DW4]: This execution occurred in the British
Colonies. The United States did not exist until 1776.

3

to determine challenges they face found that 30 families undergo traumatic situations, ten

families suffer from stigma, and 25 suffer from grief. According to the survey, the death penalty

has adverse effects on families, and it should be abolished to protect families from these

sufferings. The reports tabled by the American Psychiatric Association showed that families of

individuals convicted of a death sentence are more associated with mental illnesses. The report

showed that five percent of mental illnesses recorded in the U.S are from families of individuals

on a death sentence. Based on these arguments, there has been a move to abolish the death

sentence because it subjects families to trauma, stigma, and grief.

There are claims that the death sentence is administered unequally. The Garrett, Jakubow

& Desa (2017) report shows that the death sentence targets minority groups. Racial profiling

makes the Blacks experience unequal administration of death sentences in terms of the

magnitude of the trials they are taken to determine the cases. Desai & Garrett (2018) reported a

study that concluded that “black defendants convicted of killing white victims were executed at a

rate 20 times greater than white defendants convicted of killing Black victims.” This allegation

aligns with the findings of Desai & and Garrett (2018), which shows that Blacks accused of

killing whites through stand-your-ground principles are 82 times more likely to be convicted

than whites who are charged with killing Blacks for self-defence principles. The stand-your-

ground law has been severally reported to favour whites over blacks, which leads to blacks’ high

conviction with a death sentence than whites. The unfair administration of the death sentence is

an indication that the death penalty should be abolished.

The analysis of race and the death penalty shows that the death penalty promotes racism.

Garrett (2017) indicated that most cases involving the death penalty have a pattern of either race

of victim or race of the defendant. Garrett, (2017) has shown that judges are biased when

Commented [DW5]: APA: For a work with three or more
authors, include the name only of the first author plus
“et al.” in every citation. See Section 8.17 and Table
8.1 in the APA Manual.

Commented [DW6]: APA: The citation is not properly
formatted. See Chapter 8 in the APA Manual.

4

administering death penalty sentencing. According to Garrett (2017), the death penalty should be

abolished because criminal justice does not administer justice equally. The death penalty

promotes racial discrimination; hence it should be abolished because it is not administered

equally.

Garrett (2017) argues that minority groups are side-lined in the ruling on the death penalty

regardless of the evidence they present. Garrett (2017) has shown that over 80 percent of people

on death row were convicted in cases involving white victims. Based on these allegations, there

has been a move to criticize the death penalty for overlooking evidence.

Garrett (2017) argues argued that prosecutors determine the cases that end up getting death

sentencing regardless of the evidence’s magnitude. Some allegations have been rooted in the fact

that influential people are protected from the death sentence. The move to criticize death

sentencing is based on the unfair administration of the process on race.

The opponents have argued that the death penalty has reduced crime in the U.S since there

are over 2500 prisoners who are currently facing execution. The level of capital offenses,

including murder, robbery with violence, rape, and treason, has greatly declined in the United

States. The death penalty in the USA United States found that crime has greatly declined in

hotspot areas due to the fear of the death penalty for capital offenses. These allegations have

shown that a reduced number of criminals have led to fewer offenses in society, making society

safe.

According to Amnesty International, the death penalty plays a minor role in deterring

criminals because it increases the probability of crime in society since its aim is not to restore or

rehabilitate offenders.

Commented [DW7]: APA: Past Tense: Discuss the
findings from prior research studies in the past tense,
since the studies have already taken place and been
completed. See Section 4.12 of the APA Manual.

Formatted: Indent: First line: 0.5″

Commented [DW8]: APA: Indent the first line of every
paragraph 0.5”. See section 2.24 of the APA Manual.

Commented [DW9]: This source is peer-reviewed and
counts toward the peer-reviewed requirement in the
assignment.

5

The ideas presented in this paper, including the effect of the death penalty on families,

unfair administration, and lack of emphasis on the presented evidence, show that the death

penalty should be abandoned. The death penalty promotes racism and mental illnesses to

defendants and plaintiffs; therefore, it should be abolished. Besides, it undermines democracy by

promoting racial discrimination. The death penalty has not achieved the desired outcome of

deterring crime; hence it should be abolished.

Commented [DW10]: APA: The required APA Headings
are missing from your paper. You should use at least level
one APA Headings. See Section 2.27 in the APA Manual.

6

References

Broughton, J. R. (2017). The Federal Death Penalty, Trumpism, and Civil Rights

Enforcement. Am. UL Rev., 67, 1611.

Desai, A., & Garrett, B. L. (2018). The State of the Death Penalty. Notre Dame L. Rev., 94,

1255.

Garrett, B. (2017). End of its rope: How killing the death penalty can revive criminal justice.

Harvard University Press.

Garrett, B. L., Jakubow, A., & Desai, A. (2017). The American death penalty decline. The

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1973-), 107(4), 561-642.

Formatted: Font: Bold

Commented [DW11]: APA: Capitalize only the first word
of the title, subtitle, and proper nouns in books and
journal article titles. Capitalize the title of the periodical
using title case. See Chapters 9 (9.25-Periodical
Sources) and 10 of the APA Manual.
Commented [DW12]: This source is peer-reviewed and
counts toward the peer-reviewed requirement in the
assignment.

Commented [DW13]: This source is peer-reviewed and
counts toward the peer-reviewed requirement in the
assignment.

The number of scholarly peer reviewed journal articles used
in support of your paper did not meet the requirements as
specified in the assignment. Recall from the instructions, that
it is necessary to summarize findings from prior “research
studies,” which are typically published in peer-reviewed
academic journals.

To locate articles in peer-reviewed journals, go to the
University Library, check the “Scholarly (Peer Reviewed)
Journals” and “Full Text” options, select the time period of
2016-2021.

Two of 3 required

7

No Progress Introductory Emergent Practiced Proficient Mastery Grading Score Relative Weight Points
0 1 2 3 4 5

Choose topic.

Student work
demonstrates no
understanding or
progress towards
achievement of this
outcome.

Student chose a topic for
their Draft Informative Essay
that was not on the essay
matrix.

Left blank intentionally. Left blank intentionally. Left blank intentionally.
Student chose a topic from the
essay matrix for their Draft
Informative Essay.

5 10% 5

Research.

Student work
demonstrates no
understanding or
progress towards
achievement of this
outcome.

Student work demonstrates
no understanding or
progress towards
achievement of this
outcome.

Student used sources that
were not peer-reviewed.

Student used peer-reviewed
sources but did not properly
cite/reference the sources.

Student used one to two peer-
reviewed sources and properly
cited/referenced the sources.

Student used three peer-
reviewed sources and properly
cited/referenced the sources.

4 10% 4.25

Draft essay.

Student work
demonstrates no
understanding or
progress towards
achievement of this
outcome.

Student attempted to draft
an essay, but was
unsuccessful.

Student drafted one to two of
the following components for
an essay.
● Introduction
● Body paragraph one
● Body section two
● Body section three
● Conclusion.

Student drafted three of the
following components for an
essay.
● Introduction
● Body paragraph one
● Body section two
● Body section three
● Conclusion.

Student drafted four of the
following components for an
essay.
● Introduction
● Body paragraph one
● Body section two
● Body section three
● Conclusion.

Student drafted all of the
following components for an
essay.
● Introduction
● Body paragraph one
● Body section two
● Body section three
● Conclusion.

5 40% 20

Formatting/ Layout
The project was not
submitted.

The project was submitted,
but the formatting (e.g.,
spacing, margins, font size,
etc.) contains errors that are
excessive and distracting.
The title page and reference
page are missing.

The project demonstrates an
attempt to adhere to the
formatting guidelines as
outlined in the instructions
(e.g., spacing, margins, font
size, etc.)–errors are frequent.
The title page and/or
reference page may be
missing, incomplete, or
contain some formatting
errors.

The project demonstrates an
attempt to adhere to the
formatting guidelines as
outlined in the instructions (e.g.,
spacing, margins, font size, etc.)-
-errors are not egregious. The
title page or reference page are
included but may contain
formatting errors.

The project adheres to the
formatting guidelines as
outlined in the instructions
(e.g., spacing, margins, font
size, etc.) with minimal errors.
The title page and reference
page (listing all sources used)
are included but may contain
minor or negligible formatting
errors.

The project adheres to the
formatting guidelines as
outlined in the instructions (e.g.,
spacing, margins, font size,
etc.). The title page and
reference page (listing all
sources used) are included and
conform to course/ assignment
guidelines.

4 10% 4.25

Source Attribution

No attempt was made
to distinguish
between ideas from
sources and those of
the author. Paper
may be plagiarized.
Reference list does
not match text
citations.

Ideas from sources are not
clearly distinguishable from
those of the author. The
following are infrequent or
non-existent: Signal
phrases, inclusion of URLs,
author names, publication
titles, in-text citations, and/or
(when appropriate) quotation
marks. Reference list does
not match text citations.

Ideas from sources are
usually distinguishable from
those of the author by the
use of any of the following:
Signal phrases, inclusion of
URLs, author names,
publication titles, and/or in-
text citations. Quotation marks
are rarely used when
appropriate. Reference list
matches 50% of the text
citations.

Ideas from sources are
generally distinguishable from
those of the author by the use
of two or more of the following:
Signal phrases, inclusion of
URLs, author names,
publication titles, and/or in-text
citations. Quotation marks are
sometimes used when
appropriate.

Ideas from sources are usually
distinguishable from those of
the author by the use of two or
more of the following: Signal
phrases, inclusion of URLs,
author names, publication
titles, and/or in-text citations.
Quotation marks are used
when appropriate. Reference
list matches text citations.

Ideas from sources are clearly
distinguishable from those of
the author by the frequent use
of in-text citations. Quotation
marks are always used when
appropriate. Reference list
matches text citations.

5 10% 5

Mechanics

Student work
demonstrates no
understanding or
progress towards
achievement of this
outcome.

Grammatical, punctuation,
and spelling errors pervasive
and distracting.

Grammatical, punctuation,
and spelling errors significant
and distracting.

Frequent grammatical,
punctuation, and spelling errors.

Minor grammatical,
punctuation, and spelling
errors.

Technically flawless,
mechanically and grammatically
compliant with APA guidelines.

4 10% 4.25

Organization

Student work
demonstrates no
understanding or
progress towards
achievement of this
outcome.

Organization and structure
detract from the analysis.
Analysis is disjointed and
lacks transition of thought.

Organization and structure
are not easy to follow and
interfere with meaning.
Paragraph and sentence
transitions need significant
improvement.

Organization and structure
developing but still some illogic
in flow. Transition of thoughts
needs some improvement.

Organization and structure are
clear but presentation could
be more precise. Minor flaw(s)
in flow of analysis.

Organization and structure of
the paper are clear and easy to
follow. Logical flow of ideas.

5 10% 5

Language

Student work
demonstrates no
understanding or
progress towards
achievement of this
outcome.

Language inappropriate,
mundane, and unfocused.
No central theme or thesis
present. Not written for the
appropriate audience.

Random, choppy, and/or
awkward language
significantly detracts from
analysis. Not written for the
appropriate audience.

Language ordinary, imprecise,
and/or lacks interest or
precision. Central theme or
thesis present but not explicitly
presented. Written for the
appropriate audience.

Language functional,
appropriate, and acceptable.
Written for the appropriate
audience.

Variety of sentence length and
structure. Language rich,
precise, and vivid. Central
theme or thesis clear. Written
for the appropriate audience.

5 10.0% 5

100%

Overall
Grading
Score:
47.75

CJ526:

Unit 2 Discussion Question

Part 1: Topic/Persuasive Essays: Take a Stance
Based on the specific topic you chose from the four options in Unit 1, (The Death Penalty) write your preliminary thesis statement and post it to the Discussion Board. Remember that a thesis statement is a debatable point or claim. What debatable point or claim are you going to make about your topic for your persuasive essay? State that claim in the form of a single sentence.

After you have posted your debatable claim, choose two of your classmates’ preliminary statements and take a stance that is counter to each of their claims.

Offer a one-sentence counterargument, refuting the basic claim of your classmates’ thesis statement. Keep in mind as you complete this exercise that a true thesis statement is debatable and there are any number of possible counterclaims that could be used to challenge any thesis.

This will help you and your fellow students to identify areas that you will need to address when defending your thesis statement in your persuasive essay.

Please note: You are not required to respond to any of the counterarguments that may be posted on your discussion about your thesis statement. The counterarguments that may be posted are meant to help you foresee some of the areas that you will need to cover to provide a successful defense of your thesis statement in your persuasive essay.

In conclusion, keep in mind that when you take a stance, you are engaging in a polite debate designed to offer your classmates constructive ideas for consideration.

Part 2: Respond to Student #1:

3 Strikes Laws

 

Jon Kirk posted May 14, 2021 2:07 PM

 

In the early 1990’s, the perception of rising crime rates and several highly publicized criminal cases combined to convince the public to pressure their elected representatives that more definitive steps needed to be established.

Part 3: Respond to Student #2:

Unit 2 Discussion

 

Antonio Custodio posted May 13, 2021 12:11 AM

 

Here is my thesis statement I feel it can be argued and debatable.

Thesis: The formulation of the Department of Homeland security dramatically increased the security and preparedness of The United States in countering terrorist threats

HM500 Crisis and Emergency Management

Unit 2 Assignment

For this assignment, you are the emergency manager in your community. The city council has asked that you make a presentation to them on the readiness of the community’s emergency agencies to respond to a major hurricane (category 3 or greater). The city council wants to know the processes you will follow to enlist other cities, counties, the state, or the federal government if needed during this type of emergency.

In your presentation identify, the resources that are available within your community; assets available throughout neighboring cities, the county, state, and the federal governments; and infrastructure organizations such as, public utilities, hospitals, public health, etc. Identify three or more private sector resources that might be required during the emergency. Use the internet to research the resources available in your city, state, and federal governments.

Then distinguish the roles of all of the organizations identified, and break down the specific needs that each organization will fulfill based on an emergency involving a hurricane (category 3 or greater). Discuss how each organization identified will respond to the hurricane both independently and in collaboration with the other organizations you have identified.

Your presentation should be 15 slides in length (excluding title slide and references slide).

This assignment will require outside research. Use at least two credible sources beyond the text material and discuss how you evaluated the credibility of the resources used. You may consult the Purdue Global Library, the internet, the textbook, other course material, and any other outside resources in supporting your task, using proper citations in APA style.

Directions

· Your 15 slide requirement is excluding your title, introduction, and reference slides.

· Use one basic slide design and layout.

· Text large enough to be read by your audience (font size 20-34 point).

· Limit slides to between 6 and 8 lines of content.

· You may use pictures, charts and graphs to supplement your material as long as they do not take up the entire slide

· Use bullets for your main points.

·
Use speaker notes to fully explain what is being discussed in the bullet points as though you are presenting to an audience, being sure to follow the Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.).

· Viewpoint and purpose should be clearly established and sustained.

· Presentation should be well ordered, logical and unified, as well as original and insightful.

· Your work should display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics

· Appropriate citation style should be followed 

You should also make sure to:

· Use examples to support your discussion

Cite all sources on a separate reference slide at the end of your PowerPoint and reference and cite within the body of the presentation using APA format and citation style. For more information on APA guidelines, visit Academic Tools.

Directions for Submitting Your Assignment

Compose your assignment and save it in the following format: Course#_LastnameFirstname Unit # Assignment (example: HM500_SmithJohn Unit 2 Assignment). Submit your assignment to the appropriate Dropbox by the end of the unit.

HM500: Crisis and Emergency Management

Unit 2 Discussion Question

Part 1: Topic: Out of Control Grass Fire

You are the director of emergency services for your community. The temperature outside is over 100 degrees, the humidity is only 17%, and the Santa Ana winds have begun to blow. At 10:15 a.m., a grass fire is reported and the local fire department is responding. As these first units arrive on scene they realize that the fire is out of control, and that homes are being threatened. 

The on-scene commander quickly calls for additional fire units and for the police to begin evacuating homes that are being threatened. By 1:30 p.m., the fire has grown 10 times its original size and continues out of control; several houses are in immediate danger, and all local resources are now exhausted. 

What steps would you take and when would you call for mutual aid? Additionally, at what point would you request federal assistance? Discuss the options available to you as the director of emergency services. Provide a thorough explanation of your choices.

Part 2: Respond to Student #1

Unit 2 Discussion – Out of Control Grass Fire

 

Kathryn Ostrom posted May 14, 2021 12:28 PM

 Hello Professor and Class, 

Due to the fire growing 10 times its original size, my first step would be calling for neighboring fire departments to assist in controlling the fire and helping to evacuate residence. It is important to asses which direction the wind is blowing to determine the direction the fire will continue to go until it is put out. If this did not at least slow the fire, this is when I would request federal assistance. “Federal responsibility for wildfire suppression is intended to protect lives, property, and resources on federal lands” (Hoover, 2019). Due to the fire continuing to grow and local response not being able to control it, to ensure lives are protected it would be important to call for federal assistance. They would be able to help with controlling the fire, evacuation of residence, and additional resources for individuals who have had to leave their homes. 

Thank you, 

Kathryn Ostrom 

Hoover, K. (2019, July 11). Federal Assistance for Wildfire Response and Recovery.                     Congressional Research Service.                                                                                               https://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/IF10732.pdf

Part 2: Respond to Student #2

Unit 2 Discussion

 

Matthew Burdette posted May 14, 2021 11:25 PM

 There are a few steps that I would take when deciding to call for mutual aid. After assessing the situation, I would identify the resources and agencies available to me. I can do this by reviewing my state’s Mission Ready Package or MRP. FEMA (2017) explained the MRP as “a specific mechanism that uses NIMS resource typing criteria to describe expected mission parameters and select the resources” (p. 12). This document would provide me with the information such as a mission statement, a description of any conditions that could affect the situation, a description of logistics such as types of resources, space, and money to finish the mission, and estimated costs (FEMA, 2017).

After addressing the immediate needs of fighting the fire, itself, and getting people out of harm’s way, I would establish shelters to care for displaced residents and business owners. In California’s back country, there are many resorts, campgrounds, and recreational sites that would potentially need to be alerted and evacuated. Sources of mutual aid might include the California Department of Natural Resources, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, the Red Cross, municipal fire departments, and local and county EMA offices. Federal mutual assistance at this point might come from the U.S. Department of the Interior for assistance in any national park areas, and of course, the National Weather Association.

Since the Santa Ana winds are a factor in this scenario, placing fire crews in front of the fire to contain it are going to be a priority for issuing early alerts and completing any foreseen evacuations in the fire’s path. The major plan of attack would be a ground defense. According to Fovell (2002), “The winds create turbulence and establish vertical wind shear (in which winds exhibit substantial change in speed and/or direction with height), both posing aviation hazards.” Fighting the fire by aircraft would be extremely risky. I would then be able to call in available ground crews and make the required inventories of the resources as required by NIMS resource typing.  “An Incident Commander makes initial and ongoing assessments of resource requirements and requests additional resources as needed with specific guidance on exact reporting location (e.g., U.S. National Grid, latitude and longitude)” (FEMA, 2017, p. 13).

I would engage in other processes such as mobilizing and demobilizing resources, developing performance standards and metrics, developing plans for health and safety, establishing rules of engagement, and completing necessary reports and documentation (FEMA, 2017).

At any step, the Incident Commander could contact the governor to request federal assistance. The governor would then request the President of the United States to review the situation and assign federal assistance. For a fire of this scale, the governor might request federal funds to rebuild any homes or businesses that were lost.

References

Fovell, R. (2002). The Santa Ana Winds, Robert Fovell’s home page. 
http://people.atmos.ucla.edu/fovell/ASother/mm5/SantaAna/winds.html

 

National incident management system guideline for mutual aid, (2017, November). FEMA. Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/2020-07/fema_nims_mutual_aid_guideline_20171105.pdf

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