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 Paper #1

Rigor Mortis, Livor Mortis, Algor Mortis

Algor mortis is “Aprocess that occurs after death in which the body temperature continually cools until it reaches the ambient or room temperature.” (Saferstein, 2015. Pg. 113.) This is the most crucial of the three mortis’ listed above. In order for an accurate determination of time of death this must be conducted as soon as possible. There are a few steps as to how this is calculated. First, you would need to determine what the surrounding temperature of the body was. Next, it is important to get the temperature from the ear channel of the victim at the scene. “Ataverage ambient temperatures of 70-72 degrees Fahrenheit, the body loses heat at a rate of approximately of 1-1.5 degrees F per hour until the body reaches the ambient or room temperature.” (Saferstein, 2015. Pg. 113) Now, since the heart rate is greatly influenced by the ambient temperature, along with other factors, this can only give an approximate amount of time since death.

Liver Mortis is defined as, “Amedical condition that occurs after death and results in the settling of blood in areas of the body closest to the ground.” (Saferstein, 2015, Pg.113) When the human heart stops pumping blood, the blood then pools to the areas that are closest to the ground. “The onset of this condition begins 20 minutes to 3 hours after death and under average conditions continues for up to 16 hours after death, at which point all lividity, or coloring, is fixed. Initially, lividity can be pressed out of the vessels.” (Saferstein, 2015. pg. 113) When some of the skin is pressed it is called blanched. A range in the time of death can be determined by the lividity as long as there is still some whitening. The body temperature and that of the environmental temperature is a contributor in the way this directly affects the initial time of death.

Rigor mortis is the last of these. Rigor mortis is “The onset of this condition begins 20 minutes to 3 hours after death and under average conditions continues for up to 16 hours after death, at which point all lividity, or coloring, is fixed. Initially, lividity can be pressed out of the vessels.” (Saferstein, 2015. pg. 113) This is probably the most common of the three. These are some things that can alter the determination of time of death. “An environment that is hot can speed up the process significantly. Conditions that affected the body before death, such as exercise or physical activity, can also speed up the process. (Saferstein, 2015. pg. 113.)

Saferstein, R. (2015). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science (11th ed.). Pearson.

Paper #2

 

Detail, watch out!!! Is the first thing that runs through my head when someone says boot camp. Having been a man who joined the Marine Corps at the age of 17, boot camp was the foundation of everything I needed to understand about not only becoming a man but, learning the core principles of how to live within this world. In Marine Corps boot camp they teach us recruits that honor, courage, commitment, integrity, respect, honesty, tact, decisiveness, bearing, unselfishness, endurance, loyalty, judgment, and justice are the key characteristics that it takes to not only survive within the military but, are characteristics that can be taken out of the military and utilized in one’s everyday life in order to be a productive member of society. It is still something that I stand by to this day after seven years of being out of the service. However, boot camp aftercare programs are not the Marines and according to an article entitled, “BootCamp” Drug Treatment and Aftercare Interventions: An Evaluation Review, that although these programs were designed to be a culture shock they were not totally designed around a military model boot camp either. In my opinion, they should have been. Frank Schmalleger and John Ortiz Smykla (2020) inform readers that these aftercare programs are disappearing due to the belief they do not meet all the needs of the offenders, nor, are they believed to reduce recidivismrates. In my opinion, this is due to these “boot camps” not running in the same manner as traditional military boot camps and trade schools. Boot camp is supposed to be designed to tear you down to nothing then build you back a better stronger person. Moreover, giving a recruit or in this case the inmate a purpose. This could be done with specific job training that can be developed and used upon exit from the program plumbing, electricians, HVAC, service repair, and others are all taught in the military and could be taught in these boot camps. This, I believe needs to be incorporated along with Substance abuse, domestic violence, law training, sex addiction, and other criminal statistical classes. In my opinion, this may solve the problem or at least it helped most of the boys I knew to become the men I know today.

References

Schmalleger, F., Smykla, J. O. (2020). Corrections in the 21st century (9th ed.). McGrawHill Education. https://betheluniversityonline.net/cps360/default.aspx?SectionID=3163&tabid=155#/unit/1/Read

Cowles, E., Castellano, T., Gransky, L. (1995). Boot Camp” Drug Treatment and Aftercare Interventions: An Evaluation Review. National Institute of Justice. https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles/btcamp.pdf

Paper #3

 Professor and Classmates,

” Boot camp programs, characterized by a strong emphasis on military structure, drill, and discipline, and an abbreviated period of incarceration, promised immediate savings in prison costs resulting from early releases, without appearing to coddle criminals” (Bourque, Han, and Hill, 1996, p. 1). Although this study was done many years ago, it has relevance today because re-cidivism rates are still high and aftercare programs need to be increased. These programs can help individuals with being disciplined and aftercare programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Addicts Anonymous can help them stay on a path of sobriety, which led them to be in the boot camp in the first place. Addicts can go to outpatient treatment centers after boot camp. Sober living facilities is an option too. The aftercare program should meet the individual’s specific needs. In addition, group counseling as well as intensive supervision are options. According to Proctor and Herschman (2014) aftercare programs should last for about three to six months at a minimum.

Continuing care should begin before the individual is released from boot camp. Offenders can report to a nonresidential say reporting center daily or several times per week is another option for aftercare help. These should help because they are strict on offenders. Offenders can get a job, go to school, or do something productive as part of their aftercare. Remote location monitoring can help keep track of offenders, which known to have positive results. If a program is to be successful for an offender after boot camp, it must be a rigorous one because boot camps do not typically have favorable outcomes for them (Schmalleger and Smykla, 2020). Programs in the community that show promise must be recommended for boot camp goers, such as those that have been sourced to work like the ones above mentioned.

References

Bourque, B.B., Han, M. and Hi, S.M. (1996). A national survey of aftercare provisions for

 boot camp graduates. https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles/aftercar.pdf

Proctor, S. L. and Herschman, P. L. (2014). The continuing care model of substance use treatment:

What works, and when is “enough,” “enough?” 2014, 1-16.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/692423

Schmalleger, F., Smykla, J. O. (2020). Corrections in the 21st century (9th ed.). McGraw Hill Education

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