2 hws. one is 8 sentences other is 400 words

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1. I would like you to FIRST, read the Huffington Article entitled “Developing Identity as a Muslim Immigrant Woman in America”, which you find in this week’s assignment folder and formulate a focused and precise question that captures the issue/s raised and the article and answer your question with a thesis statement (this is a good preparation for the final exam). SECOND, briefly EXPLAIN your question and support your thesis statement by drawing on the Hall and Vertovec readings on the formation of identity. The objective of this week’s assignment is to foster your understanding of how difference based on the formation of identities are constructed on the level of politics but also in people’s everyday life. Moreover, it encourages you to think about how immigrants make use of the “transnational flow of images, practices, discourses and perspectives [which] can have profound effect on people’s identities vis-a -vis both local and global settings” (Vertovec p. 580) 

https://www.huffpost.com/entry/developing-identity-as-a-_b_9286416 (read this link too)

2. The Rodney King case started with what we now recognize as the first “viral” video.

See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sb1WywIpUtY&oref=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3Dsb1WywIpUtY&has_verified=1

Here is a link to a detailed Washington Post story: https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1998/01/25/the-king-incident-more-than-met-the-eye-on-videotape/2248e35e-178b-47e9-a8db-0734f88b46e0/?utm_term=.9fbae259b743

 Independent Commission http://michellawyers.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Report-of-the-Independent-Commission-on-the-LAPD-re-Rodney-King_Reduced.pdf

Reflection http://lapd-assets.lapdonline.org/assets/pdf/five-years-later—christop.pdf

Gates at City Council  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lcGM1ecV4q0

write a 400 word synopsis on the Rodney King case, the beating, arrest of police officers, Simi Valley verdict, the unprecedented riots, the conviction of two cops in the federal trial and the settlement with King. Stress the role of the media in the case as a catalyst for prosecution and what impact the media might have had on the riots.

Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies Vol. 27, No. 4: 573± 582 October 2001

Transnationalism and identity

Steven Vertovec

Abstract Transnationalism and identity are concepts that inherently call for juxtapo-
sition. This is so because many peoples’ transnational networks of exchange and
participation are grounded upon some perception of common identity; conversely, the
identities of numerous individuals and groups of people are negotiated within social
worlds that span more than one place. In this introductory article, the transnational
perspective on migration studies is ® rst discussed, followed by some critiques and
outstanding questions. The ® nal section summarises points raised by the contributing
authors of the main articles in this themed issue of JEMS, especially with regard to
various ways transnational settings and dynamics affect the construction, negotiation
and reproduction of identities.

KEYWORDS: TRANSNATIONALISM; IDENTITY; MIGRATION

The increasingly invoked notion of `transnationalism’, referring to various kinds
of global or cross-border connections, currently frames the view of numerous
researchers concerned with migrants and dispersed ethnic groups. Ìdentity’,
although it has long been one of the slipperiest concepts in the social scientist’s
lexicon, can suggest ways in which people conceive of themselves and are
characterised by others. Transnationalism and identity are concepts that inher-
ently call for juxtaposition. This is so because, on the one hand, many peoples’
transnational networks are grounded upon the perception that they share some
form of common identity, often based upon a place of origin and the cultural
and linguistic traits associated with it. Such networks are marked by patterns of
communication or exchange of resources and information along with partici-
pation in socio-cultural and political activities. On the other hand, among certain
sets of contemporary migrants, the identities of speci® c individuals and groups
of people are negotiated within social worlds that span more than one place.
This special issue of JEMS is devoted to articles that provide detailed case
studies and theoretical assessments of transnational spaces, groups and practices
and the identities that both precede and arise from them.

In the ® rst section of this introductory article, some key features of the
transnational perspective in migration studies are discussed. Despite its current
popularity and uptake by numerous scholars of migration and ethnicity, there
remain many critiques and outstanding questions surrounding the notion of
transnationalism. These are outlined in the second section. The ® nal section
includes a run-down of the contributing articles, pointing out ways in which the
authors regard transnational settings and dynamics along with their effects on
the construction, negotiation and reproduction of individual and group identi-
ties.

ISSN 1369-183 X print/ISSN 1469-9451 online/01/040573-1 0 Ó 2001 Taylor & Francis Ltd
DOI: 10.1080/1369183012009038 6
Carfax Publishing

574 S. Vertovec

Migration and transnationalism

Researchers on migration have almost always recognised that migrants maintain
various forms of contact with people and institutions in their places of origin.
This has been observed, for instance, through the scale of migrants’ correspon-
dence and remittances at the end of the nineteenth and early part of the
twentieth centuries. Since the early sociology of migration in the 1920s± 1930s,
however, most migration research has generally tended to focus upon the ways
in which migrants adapt themselves to, or are socially excluded from, their place
of immigration.

The past decade has witnessed the ascendance of an approach to migration
that accents the attachments migrants maintain to families, communities, tradi-
tions and causes outside the boundaries of the nation-state to which they have
moved. In the early 1990s the shift in perspective arose through a set of key texts
in anthropology (Basch et al. 1994; Glick Schiller et al. 1992a; Rouse 1991); the
transnational approach has been subsequently embellished throughout the 1990s
(see for instance, Kearney 1995; Portes et al. 1999a; Smith and Guarnizo 1998;
Vertovec and Cohen 1999). Observing this substantial change of approach, in
1995 Roger Rouse wrote:

While, a decade ago, disagreements about the frames for understanding (im)migrant
experience were largely contained within the dominant models of bipolar landscapes and

localized identities, they now focus much more widely on the relationship between these
models and the alternative images of transnational social spaces and multi-local af® liations.

(1995: 355)

While noting the similarities to long-standing forms of migrant connection to
homelands, the current transnational approach underscores numerous ways in
which, and the reasons why, today’ s linkages are different from, or more intense
than, earlier forms (see Foner 1997; Morawska 1999; Portes et al. 1999b). This
obviously includes the rapid development of travel and communication tech-
nologies. The nature of contemporary transnationalism among migrants has also
evolved in recent years in light of shifting political and economic circumstances
in both sending and receiving countries. These have affected a range of develop-
ments such as migrants’ capacity for political organisation in relation to both
sending and receiving contexts, sending countries’ more positive views of their
emigrants, and the impact of migrant remittances on local economies and labour
markets. Heightened attention to these kinds of phenomena and processes has
marked, for many scholars, a signi® cant shift in the ways contemporary inter-
national migration is understood. As described by Ayse Caglar in her article in
this special issue, transnationalism represents `a new analytic optic which makes
visible the increasing intensity and scope of circular ¯ ows of persons, goods,
information and symbols triggered by international labour migration’ .

The emergent approaches in migration theory describe ways in which contem-
porary migrants live in t̀ransnational communities’ . Such types of migrant
community, according to Alejandro Portes, comprise

¼ dense networks across political borders created by immigrants in their quest for econ-

omic advancement and social recognition. Through these networks, an increasing number
of people are able to live dual lives. Participants are often bilingual, move easily between

different cultures, frequently maintain homes in two countries, and pursue economic,
political and cultural interests that require their presence in both. (1997: 812)

Newer, cheaper, and more ef® cient modes of communication and transportation

Transnationalism and identity 575

allow migrants to maintain transnationally ± effectively both `here’ and `there’ ±
their originally home-based relationships and interests.

Transnational connections have considerable economic, socio-cultural and
political impacts on migrants, their families and collective groups, and the dual
(or more!) localities in which they variably dwell. The economic impacts of
transnational migrant communities are extensive. The most signi® cant form of
this is to be found in the massive ¯ ow of remittances that migrants send to the
families and communities in the sending countries (see for instance Conway and
Cohen 1998; Massey et al. 1998; Waller Meyers 1998). Substantial ¯ ows of
remittances ± currently far exceeding US$60 billion globally each year ± may
have positive and negative effects on speci® c places and groups (Vertovec 2000).
The economies of numerous developing countries are increasingly highly reliant
upon them as remittances reach amounts comparable to exports, development
aid or tourism. The money migrants send not only critically supports families,
but may progressively rework gender relations, support education and the
acquisition of professional skills and facilitate local community development
through new health clinics, water systems, places of worship and sports facili-
ties. Remittances may also undermine local labour markets, fuel price increases,
create new status hierarchies and generate patterns of economic dependence.

The social and cultural impacts are considerable and varied, too. Many
migrant communities maintain intense linkages and exchanges between sending
and receiving contexts including marriage alliances, religious activity, media and
commodity consumption. As described throughout this special issue of JEMS,
transnational connections affect migrants as never before with regard to prac-
tices of constructing, maintaining and negotiating collective identities (see also
Hannerz 1996; Portes et al. 1999a; Smith and Guarnizo 1998). This has signi® cant
bearing on the culture and identity of the so-called second generation, or
children born to migrants.

The political impacts of transnational phenomena surrounding contemporary
migration are also of far-reaching consequence. This takes many forms, es-
pecially with regard to questions of citizenship (e.g. BauboÈ ck 2002; Fitzgerald
2000; Labelle and Midy 1999) and homeland politics (e.g. Itzigsohn 2000;
é stergaard-Nielsen 2001). The global ¯ ows and cross-border networks repre-
sented by transnational migrant communities critically test prior assumptions
that the nation-state functions as a kind of container of social, economic and
political processes. For Ulrich Beck, in fact, the most interesting features sur-
rounding globalisation involve processes through which s̀overeign national
states are criss-crossed and undermined by transnational actors with varying
prospects of power, orientations, identities and networks’ (2000: 11).

The `portability of national identity’ (Sassen 1998) among migrants has com-
bined with a tendency towards claiming membership in more than one place.
`Multiple citizenship is the most visible illustration of overlapping membership
in political communities’, notes Rainer BauboÈ ck (2002). In many countries,
heated public debates concerning dual citizenship and dual nationality have
been matched by considerable academic rethinking of rights and obligations
surrounding migration, transnationalism and national identity (see Castles
2000a; Castles and Davidson 2000; Faist 1999, 2000). Among other issues cur-
rently raised in this ® eld, one view holds that transnational ties weaken
immigrants’ integration in the receiving country. Another view suggests that
democracy is actually enhanced by public recognition and representation of

576 S. Vertovec

migrants’ transnational, multiple identities (Castles 2000b; Vertovec 1999b, c). In
order to recognise the reality and prevalence of the phenomenon, some theorists
have described issues surrounding `¯ exible’ (Ong 1999), `post-national’ (Soysal
1994), `diasporic’ (Laguerre 1998) or `transnational’ (BauboÈ ck 1994) frameworks
of citizenship. Questions concerning transnational migrants and citizenship ±
and the sometimes ® erce political debates they have stimulated ± underscore the
need for more research and empirical data on the intersection of existing state
policies, actual patterns of multiple membership, and long-term strategies of
belonging among migrants and their families.

For all these reasons, within the ® eld of migration studies (through several of
its constituent disciplines including Sociology, Anthropology, Geography and
Politics) an increasing number of researchers have developed keen interests in
the transnational aspects of migrant phenomena (while recognising, of course,
that not all migrants engage in such activity). Still, there is a need for much more
empirical research in this area, while methodologies must be realigned and key
areas of social and political theory must be rethought. Yet as Alejandro Portes,
Luis Guarnizo and Patricia Landolt (1999b) stress, in order for the notion of
transnationalism to be a truly useful analytical device for social scientists, it must
be delimited and rigorously appraised as to whether it is really adding anything
new to the ® eld. With such a goal in mind, the following section includes some
outstanding areas of criticism that currently remain around transnationalism.

Some critical appraisals

The following brief points represent some of the main critiques that should be
born in mind concerning the current shift to a transnational approach toward
migration processes and migrant communities.

· Transnationalism does not represent an altogether new theoretical approach,
but one that inherently builds upon a number of preceding ones (including
those of the Chicago School of Sociology and the Manchester School of
Anthropology). Differences and similarities with prior theories of migration
and immigrant experience should be elucidated so that we can realise whether
theoretical advances are really being achieved, or whether we are merely
pouring old wine into new bottles.

· Transnationalism is a notion that has become over-used to describe too wide
a range of phenomena (from speci® c migrant communities to all migrants, to
every ethnic diaspora, to all travellers and tourists; cf. Vertovec 1999a). It is
clear that transnational patterns among migrants take many forms in socio-
cultural, economic and political arenas. Further, each form may be `broad’ or
`narrow’ (Itzigsohn et al. 1999), and may vary over time, depending on
intensity of exchanges and communication. Rather than a single theory of
transnationalism and migration, we may do better to theorise a typology of
transnationalisms and the conditions that affect them.

· In much of the currently burgeoning literature on the subject, it is often
unclear or undemonstrated just `how new’ transnational networks are among
migrants. An historical perspective is often largely lost. Research needs to
detail the current extent, structural and technical capacities, and migrants’
own desires, strategies and practices of remaining connected around the

Transnationalism and identity 577

world, and exactly how these are continuous with, or distinct from, earlier
patterns of linkage.

· Is contemporary transnationalism among migrants wholly attributable to
shifts in technology? That is, are advances in transport and, particularly,
telecommunications (from telephones and faxes through the Internet and
satellite TV) ± not least their relative inexpensiveness ± largely responsible for
the creation of today’ s transnational migrant communities? Technological
determinism is not a very strong argument. We need to understand the ways
in which technology has combined with and perhaps facilitated or enhanced,
rather than caused, transnational networks (cf. Castells 1996).

· It is open to debate whether migrants’ maintenance of transnational ties does
or does not represent a distinct alternative to other social forms, processes and
programmes of immigrant incorporation (cf. Castles 2000b). The ® eld of
transnational migration is not yet very well theorised in relation to preceding
concepts and policies surrounding assimilation, acculturation, cultural plural-
ism, integration, political inclusion and multiculturalism.

· It has been variously suggested that transnationalism among migrants can be
understood as either a mode of resistance to, or in contrast as a pattern of
incorporation into, shifts in global capitalism. Much further detailed research
remains to be done here in case-by-case fashion, and it is unlikely that a single
overall theory will emerge to demonstrate one argument or the other.

· While social scientists working in the ® eld commonly agree that contemporary
patterns and processes of transnationalism among migrants are both new to
the last 10 years or so and a development of earlier forms of connection
among migrants, the question remains: how exclusive is transnationalism to
the ® rst generation of migrants? Will the so-called `second generation’ (chil-
dren of immigrants born and raised in host countries) also maintain socio-cul-
tural, economic and political ties of some kind (if so, what kind?) with
homelands and with co-ethnic members around the world? Processes and
patterns conditioning the intergenerational succession and reproduction of
transnational ties remain largely under-researched and under-theorised.

Despite these shortcomings surrounding the notion of transnationalism, there
has nevertheless emerged a considerable and growing body of empirical studies
that contribute to expanding our understanding of relevant concepts and pro-
cesses. Turning to the topic of this JEMS special issue: how has the concept of
transnationalism contributed to the study of social and ethnic identities?

Transnationalism and identity: nine case studies

A massive body of social and social psychological theory addresses the ways in
which people conduct their everyday lives in terms of their identities. According
to most prevailing theories (neatly summarised by Richard Jenkins (1996), who
draws especially upon George Herbert Mead, Erving Goffman and Fredrik
Barth), identities are seen to be generated in, and constructed through, a kind of
internal (self-attributed) and external (other-ascribed) dialectic conditioned
within speci® c social worlds. This holds for both personal and collective identi-
ties, which should be understood as always closely entangled with each other
(while recognising the serious theoretical problems debated around notions of
self, personhood and collectivity; see for example Rouse 1995).

578 S. Vertovec

The literature on transnationalism generally underscores the fact that large
numbers of people now live in social worlds that are stretched between, or
dually located in, physical places and communities in two or more nation-states.
Ulf Hannerz (1996), for instance, discusses people who live in diverse `habitats
of meaning’ that are not territorially restricted. The experiences gathered in these
multiple habitats accumulate to comprise people’ s cultural repertoires, which in
turn in¯ uence the construction of identity ± or indeed multiple identities. Each
habitat or locality represents a range of identity-conditioning factors: these
include histories and stereotypes of local belonging and exclusion, geographies
of cultural difference and class/ethnic segregation, racialised socio-economic
hierarchies, degree and type of collective mobilisation, access to and nature of
resources, and perceptions and regulations surrounding rights and duties.

Together the multiple contexts create what some have called a t̀ransnational
social ® eld’ (Glick Schiller et al. 1992b), t̀ransnational social space’ (Pries 1999),
t̀ransnational village’ (Levitt 2001) or `translocality’ (Appadurai 1995). However
termed, the multi-local life-world presents a wider, even more complex set of
conditions that affect the construction, negotiation and reproduction of social
identities. These identities play out and position individuals in the course of
their everyday lives within and across each of their places of attachment or
perceived belonging. Transnational(ised) identities may also, indeed, form the
basis of homeland or receiving country-focused political engagement.

The contributions to this special issue of JEMS present case studies exemplify-
ing diverse approaches to transnational in¯ uences on identity construction and
expression. Differing migration processes, group and individual experiences,
policy contexts, institutional settings, organisational developments and cultural
¯ ows are recounted by way of suggesting ways in which local identities are
shaped by transnational factors.

In the ® rst piece, Bruno Riccio describes the complex experiences and multiple
self-representations evident among Senegalese Mourides in and between Italy
and Senegal. These coincide with, and help account for, the very differing
trajectories and strategies among the transnational Senegalese. One key strategy
identi® ed by Riccio is the `dynamic process of constant networking within
transnational spaces’ , a process both based on and reinforcing Mouride identity
and practice.

Ayse CË agÏ lar follows with an article suggesting ways in which certain forms of
transnationalism signi® cantly challenge German of® cial discourses concerning
AuslaÈ nder (foreigners). Turkish-German transnational practices, images and cues
± observed in places like the new cafe -bars in Berlin ± challenge the implicit
membership models and narratives of incorporation pervasive in German public
debates and policy. This is mainly because the conventional s̀cripts of belong-
ing’ in the public sphere are based on ethnic/national exclusivism, whereas the
transnational experiences lead to more cosmopolitan senses of participation and
belonging.

Because migrants and migrant-origin communities have tended to be the focus
of most studies of transnationalism, Nadje Al-Ali, Richard Black and Khalid
Koser emphasise the need to incorporate refugees into the emergent transna-
tional perspective. Such an exercise will usefully serve, among other things, to
undermine the long-standing conceptual distinction between migrants and
refugees (cf. Crisp 1999). In a comparative study of Bosnians and Eritreans, the
authors demonstrate how refugee/asylum regimes condition and limit the

Transnationalism and identity 579

nature and extent of people’ s transnational activities. The authors innovatively
employ a comparative model surrounding refugees’ capacity (or ability) to
participate in transnational affairs versus their desire (or willingness) to do so.
The study underscores ways in which policy interventions can productively
increase refugees’ capacity to participate in both home and host contexts
simultaneously.

The state’s role in shaping transnationalism, and particularly transnational
identities, is rather differently addressed by Pa l Nyõ ri. Nyõ ri examines how the
People’ s Republic of China continues to play a central role not only in the
management of migration, but also in the reproduction of Chinese identity
outside of the country. This is achieved particularly through the regulation or
conditioning of migrant ¯ ows and the construction of everyday discourses. NyõÂ ri
demonstrates ways in which overseas Chinese are considered as part of Chinese
culture and society, as well as how their depiction remains wholly in line with
dominant of® cial discourses of Chineseness, cultural heritage and virtues. The
process is shown to lead to an increasing standardisation of state and self-depic-
tion among overseas Chinese.

The gendered nature of the nation-state, and especially of citizenship, has been
subject to considerable scrutiny (e.g. Yuval-Davis 1997). Nation-states similarly
shape and direct transnational practices in particularly gendered ways. In her
article, Ruba Salih shows how various material and normative constraints
impinge upon Moroccan women’ s transnational practices between Morocco and
Italy. Their ability to move and to build their own life-worlds is highly limited
or framed by culturally gendered rules that permeate their transnational social
® elds.

In the article that follows, it is speci® cally gendered experiences, along with a
common legal status and shared experiences of exploitation, that provide for a
common identity and mode of organisation among female migrant domestic
workers in London. Described by Bridget Anderson, the United Workers Associ-
ation (UWA) is comprised of women from no less than 29 ethnic and national
origins. While the women simultaneously participate in distinct migrant transna-
tional communities of the sort described in most of the recent literature,
Anderson describes how the UWA cross-cuttingly unites them by way of a
transnational movement f̀rom below’. Women in the UWA ® nd common cause
by way of ensuring their rights, protecting themselves from exploitation and
improving their social and legal positions within both the sending and receiving
contexts.

Of® cial and popular discourses of identity are considered by Kevin Robins
and Asu Aksoy. They describe how, in much public and institutional under-
standing, ìdentity’ in Britain functions as `an ordering device’ or `device of
cultural engineering’ which entails ®̀ xing cultures in place’ . Such a view of
ìdentity’ presumes the presence of a singular and homogeneous `community’
(cf. Baumann 1996). Within such a backdrop, Robins and Aksoy suggest that
Turkish Cypriots in Britain have never asserted themselves as such an ìdentity’
or `community’ . Instead, for more than 25 years, Turkish Cypriots in Britain
have been subject to a constant, often very dif® cult negotiation between different
cultural reference points: pre- and post-divided Cyprus, the British colony of
Cyprus, contemporary Britain and Turkey, as well as the presence of Greek
Cypriots in Britain. Following Robert Young, the authors propose the concept of
`mental space’ as an avenue into understanding the Turkish Cypriot experience

580 S. Vertovec

in Britain. According to Robins and Aksoy (and in agreement with CË agÏ lar),
transnationalism presents possibilities of un® xing identities ± particularly nation-
derived ones ± and arriving at new, cosmopolitan perspectives on culture and
belonging (cf. Cheah and Robbins 1998; Vertovec and Cohen 2002).

The ® nal two contributions represent novel and important takes on what we
might call the transnationalisation of identities. The authors point to ways in
which the transnational ¯ ow of images, practices, discourses and perspectives
can have profound effect on people’ s identities vis-aÁ -vis both local and global
settings. Rebecca Golbert presents the case of young Ukranian Jews who have
developed t̀ransnational orientations from home’ towards the Ukraine, Israel
and other Jewish communities in America, Germany and elsewhere. Such
orientations are embedded in interpersonal networks and conceptual links with
people, places, and histories outside the Ukraine. Drawing upon such an
acquired transnational perspective from home, Golbert notes, young Ukranian
Jews undertake the evaluation of `everyday experiences, the past, and the future,
with a double consciousness garnered from transnational links and a transna-
tional conception of self’. Through narratives and the sharing of experiences ±
particularly regarding Israel ± returnees have had a powerful impact even on
those who never left the Ukraine.

Finally, Katrin Hansing addresses the transnational ¯ ow of meanings, images
and practices and their effects on locally conditioned identity (cf. Hannerz 1996).
Her focus, Rastafarianism, is a cultural complex of aesthetics, values, beliefs and
practices that has been globalised predominantly through music and consumer
capitalism. In Cuba, the site of Hansing’ s research, Rastafari has (despite
government restrictions affecting global cultural ¯ ows) been adopted increas-
ingly by black Cubans. In recent years Rastafari has stimulated an alternative
view of cubanidad (Cubanness) while remaining pro-African, anti-racist and
pan-human. Expressed and adopted locally in multiform ways, transnational
Rastafarianism importantly offers black Cubans a source of personal resistance
to growing racism within a context of ever-worsening economic conditions.

People who embody transnationalism, CË agÏ lar points out in this issue, `weave
their collective identities out of multiple af® liations and positionings and link
their cross-cutting belongingness with complex attachments and multiple alle-
giances to issues, peoples, places, and traditions beyond the boundaries of their
resident nation-states’. These kinds of connections ± exempli® ed in all of the
articles contributing to this special issue of JEMS ± demonstrate how the
juxtaposition of the concepts transnationalism and identity raises numerous
theoretical issues which, in turn, help social scientists deepen their understand-
ing of each concept itself.

Acknowledgements

I wish to express my gratitude to Russell King and Jenny Money at JEMS, Robin
Cohen, Alisdair Rogers and anonymous referees for assistance in preparing this
issue, and especially Emma Newcombe for her work on preparation of the ® nal
manuscript.

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Author details

Steven Vertovec is Research Reader in Social Anthropology at Oxford University and Director of the
Economic and Social Research Council’s Research Programme on Transnational Communities

(www.transcomm.ox.ac.uk). He may be contacted at:

Oxford University
Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology

51 Banbury Road
Oxford OX2 6PE

UK

E-mail: [email protected] k

Copyright of Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies is the property of Routledge and its content may not be

copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written

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King ruling
incites L.A.
violence

‘BYJIMMULVANEY
‘Newsday

LOS ANGELES At 3:15 Wednes
day afternoon the jury foreman started
to read out the not verdicts acquitting police beating
Rodney King It was “a verdict that
seemed to fly in the face of an oft
broadcastamateurvideotape that showed
the four white policemen beating the
seemingly helpless black suspect

Within six hours Mayor Tom Brad
ley had declared a state of emergency
Gov Pete Wilson had called out the
National Guard’and a spree of looting
arson and random killings moved into
high gear On Thursday a duskcurfew was ordered By Friday after
noon U.S. Marines and Army troops
were deployed in staging areas ready to
put down the worst riots in the historyof
this troubled city

When I heard the verdict the first
thing I did was checkmy pistol checked
my ammo said Jay Harvey a liquor
store owner Then I thought about it

See KING page 6.

‘BY JIM MULVANEY

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Rioting destroys many businesses in Koreatown
and predominately black neighborhoods in Calif.
KING from page 1.

jumped in my car and went right to
the gun rack and got out the artil
lery. Everyone knew it would be
bad.

Harvey who on Friday proudly
displayed three rifles a shotgun and
several ammo boxes behind the
counter of his store admitted he
was surprised that the rioting was as
prolonged and widespread as it was.

And Saturday after a compara
tively peaceful Friday night as the
city seemed to breathe a sigh of
relief and started to rebuild it also
began to look at exactly what hap
pened how seemingly justified
protests exploded into days of ter
ror.

While the cause of the explosion
will take time to determine the
leading factors appear to be a com
bination of the near-complete sur
prise of the verdict the volatile mix
ofa large disaffected and disjointed
minority community the toll of
poverty drug addiction and despair
slow police reaction and inefficient
deployment of the National Guard.

A picture has begun to emerge on
how the violence started escalated
out of control and by Saturday had
seemingly petered out.

This account is compiled from
media accounts and staff reporting

At 12:30a.m. March 1991Los
Angeles police stopped 25-year-old
Rodney King after a high-speed car
chase. Police said he resisted and
four officers had to beat him into
submission while 11 more cops
looked on. An unseen bystander
George Holliday recorded 81 sec
onds of the vicious beating on vid
eotape and sold it the following day
televisionstationfor$500.

Within hours it was broadcast
around the nation. EvenPoIice Chief
Daryl Gates a pugnacious man not
known for racial sensitivity apolo
gized for the beating calling it an
“aberration.

The four officers seen in the vid
eotape were indicted on felony
charges 12 days later. A political
storm with heavy racial overtones
erupted and Bradley one of the
longest blackmayors in the
country attempted to force Gates
out of his protected civil-service
job. Gates eventually announced he
would retire next month.

IIi November Los Angeles
County Superior Court Judge
Stanley Weisberg announced that

he was moving the trial to Simi Valley
in suburban Ventura County because
press coverage would make it impos
sible to pick an unbiased jury in Los
Angeles.

Simi Valley 40 miles northwest of
downtown Los Angeles is predomi
nantly white and the jury was made
up of 10 whites a Hispanic and an
Asian.

The location and makeup of the jury
which returned not-guilty verdicts

on three of the officers and declared
itself hung on one count against the
copwho struck the most blows fu
eled suspicions of racism.

The verdict was broadcast live
shortly after 3 p.m. Wednesday and
although some commentators pre
dicted one or two officers’might be
acquitted seemingly everyone was
caught by surprise when the words
“not guilty” were spoken 10 times
mistrial once and the jurors filed out
without returning a single conviction.

Today this jury told the world
what we all saw with our own eyes
wasn’t a crime Bradley said on tele
vision and radio shortly after the ver
dict

“Today that jury asked us to accept
the senseless and brutal beating of a
helpless man

Within minutes after the verdict
angry crowds gathered at the intersec
tion of 55th Street and Normandie
Avenue in the center of the South-
Central neighborhood. Someone set
up a cardboard sign that read “Black
men and women are fair game for
shooting and beating at the hands of
Gates’ gang known as.LAPD.

At the same time acrowd of about
200 gathered at the Lake View Ter-
race spot where King had beenbeaten
They chanted “We want justice” and
“Guilty. Passing police cars were
stoned.

Mainstream outrage over the ver
dict flooded television news reports
with statements from the NAACP the
American Civil Liberties Union the
American Jewish Congress and oth
ers.

Crowds gathered downtown around
police headquarters by 5 p.m. and as
Gatesl eft to attend a political meet
ing he was greeted with chants of
“LAPD are rednecks. LAPD are rac
ists.

Asduskfell violence explodedback
on Normandie. Police arrivingto ar
rest looters at 71st nd -Normafidie
were showeredwith’rocksandbottlesj’
as the crowd got out of control. Wit
nesses said that after about 15 min

utes a sergeant got on a loudspeaker
and ordered a police retreat i

Television news displayed live
pictures of people smashing shop
windows andcartingoff goodsWhite
motorists were pulled out of cars
and a white truck driver was beaten
nearly to death by a mob a beating
broadcast live from a television heli
copter. As night fell fires broke out
in the Central district -v.

At about the same time gunshots
were heard at Lake View Terrace It
quickly became clear that this was
different from the 11965 riots in Watts
which came to symbolize the black-
white tension that has ripped the
country apart for so long.

This time Los Angeles was a dif
ferent city with a more subtle spec
trum. While the haves are still pre
dominantly white the “have
and the emerging “up by the boot
straps” class are now a mix ofblacks
Hispanic-Americans and undocu
mented Mexican and Central’Ameri-
cans and a large number of Asians
with Koreans bumping hard against
the other groups.

Anger with the authorities appar
ently had been bubbling for decades
and it was not just blacks who took
the King verdict personally it was
also Hispanics and whites There is
much evidence that the first moments
of rage sucked in many opportunists
with a need to vent frustration or
simply steal and pillage.

Some Koreans who come from a
nation where police are traditionally
heavy-handed did not seem ‘to un
derstand the outrage over the verdict
However they quickly grew dis
gusted with police for failing to pro
tect them.

It appears the firstfatality occurred
at 8:15 pjn Wednesday when
year-old Louis Watson was shot
the head by unknown gunmen rat
Vernon and Vermont Avenues.

About this time Gates had put the
police on alert canceled leaves and
called back hundreds of investiga
tors But Bradley decided Gates had
lost control of the city and at about9
pin he declared a state of emer
gency and persuaded Wilson to call
out the National Guard

But the violence continued to grow
Shortly after 11 pin the first dea i-

for which the police took respond
bilitY occurred when a year
man waskilled in a shootfiut’be
.tweemuniforme’d tJffie&siand fct&Ui

project

The pattern in the South
area was set early S tores were looted
of most.of their goods and when
there’seemed little of value’left
someone poured gasoline on the floor
and set it afire On the first night 150
fires were set

Normal rivalries among street
gangs were suspended and the Crips
Bloods Hoovers and Eight Trey
Gangsters joined in a rampage of
looting burning and shootingat po
lice officers.

The violence spread throughout
the day Thursday as radio commen
tators compared the view to the Iraqi
occupationof Kuwait City last year
with plumes of smoke marking the
distance to the horizon.

“For a period of time from mid
night to three o’clock we were get
ting about three new fires aminute
said Fire Chief Donald Manning.

“We had numerous situations
where there were attempts to kill
firefighters added explaining
why fire officials were letting some
blazes burn unattended.

The violence spread at 2 p.m.
Thursday to the city of Compton
where police said a man was shot
after he swung a bottle at an officer
Mobs took to the streets in Long
Beach Inglewood the normally staid
shopping and banking district of Mid-
Wilshire and even Hollywood Bou
levard

At5p.m. a 15-year-old blackmale
was killed by sheriffsdeputiesin
Hawthorne allegedly after looting a
jewelry store’and firing at cops.

By mid-afternoon Gates admitted
that his force was unprepared and
outmanned.

“We were simply overwhelmed
he told a news conference.having”
swapped his business suit for a po
lice uniform with apistol on his hip.

The National Guard did not pro
vide help as quickly as had been
hoped.

Although the first 2000 troops
arrived in the city by midday Thurs
day they were mostly without am
munition due to a delivery foulThursday afternoon the violence
also spread from South-Central into
neighboring Koreatown where most

of the residents are black or His
panic and most of the shopkeepers
are among the more than 300,000
Koreans’who have arrived in the
city in the last 15 years.

Koreatownis a volatile area with
greatsuspicioriifnothatred’among
the three groups. Many blame the
tensions on cultural differences.

The Korean language cap sound
rude to English speakers and that
perception combined with the lack
of black employees in shops run by
Asian families has fed tension.

Koreanmerchantssaidthey called
for protection quickly but the pleas
were ignored by police who said
they were quickly overwhelmed by
the crisis

The Koreans quickly armed
themselves and a security guard
was killed Thursday evening in a
shootout between shopkeepers and
a black mob More than 100 struc
ture fires were reported in
Koreatown

Theonlybuildingssparedseemed
to be ones protected armed Ko
reins or some that were identified
by graffiti as black or”Latino

By Thursday afternoon the local
television airwaves were filled with

live reports from the ground and
helicopter.

Traffic reporters who usually
coveredfreeway conditions counted
blazes and reporters interviewed
brazen looters carrying out televi
sion sets food liquor and diapers.

“IfI don’t take ithome it will just
get burned up a man in his 20s
said before dashing down the street
with a television.

The dusk curfew seemed to take
the edge off. Police andguardsmen
started tomake their presence felt
again at first as escorts for
firefighters then fanning.out to
minimize looting

By the end of Thursday night the
death toll stood at 25 with 572 inju
ries more than 1000 fires and 720
arrests.

Dawn broke Friday through an
eerie yellow haze from the fires
Nearly every factory office school
park and beach was closed.

People ventured out in the most
heavily affected areas to assess the
damage many 16 see police patrols
for the firstfime in30 hours.

The violence had spread tQ Long
Beach south Los Angelesi1′.where
vandals fire to theregionalDepart-
ment of Motor Vehicles building
which burned most of the day

it was one of 218 fires there Friday
A curfew was declaredand 340 people
were arrested.

President Bush ordered 1000 fed
erallaw officials fromcustoms immigration and other services Ja Los Angeles He later dis
patched 1,500 marines’and 3,000
Army troops to act as backups for the
National Guard. He took the further
step of federalizing the Guard putting
them under of Gen. ColinPowell chairman of the Joint Chiefs
of Staff rather than local officials

Theviolencebecariiemorespdradic
Friday. Police started to make whole
sale arrests more thanS.OOOonFriday
alone mostly for looting.

There was a missive enforcement
presence with 20,960 cops and troops
ready for action For most of Friday it
was almost 6000 at any given time
including 1,800 Los Angeles police
officers 700 California Highway Pa
trol officers and 2,800inembers of the
National Guard.

At 7:30 a.m. Friday three Los An
geles police officers were wounded
by a sniper in South’In the early afternoon Rodney King
gave a statement broadcast on radio
and television a move requested by
political leaders to calm tensions

Wevegot to quit we’ve got to
quit he said in a halting emotional
tone.

“I could understandthe first upset
for the first two hours after the verdict.
But to go on to keep going on like this
its just not right
By Friday evening convoys of fed

eral troops had arrived on the outskirts
of town r

Saturday morning television pro
graming was back to normal power
lines were being repaired limited bus
service was restored and the commu
nity breathed a collective sigh ofrelief
that Friday night had been quiet

usi:1e ses i nj
InCahf

pro longed

Fridaynight-as

of a

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been beaten

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