Aids ( acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)

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AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)


The patient, a 30-year-old homosexual man, complained of unexplained weight loss, chronic diarrhea, and respiratory congestion during the past 6 months. Physical examination revealed right-sided pneumonitis. The following studies were performed:




Complete blood cell count (CBC), p. 174


Hemoglobin (Hgb), p. 259

12 g/dL (normal: 14-18 g/dL)

Hematocrit (Hct), p. 256

36% (normal: 42%-52%)

Chest X-ray, p. 1014

Right-sided consolidation affecting the posterior lower lung

Bronchoscopy, p. 587

No tumor seen

Lung biopsy, p. 738

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP)

Stool culture, p. 855

Cryptosporidium muris

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) serology, p. 297


p24 antigen


Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)


Western blot


Lymphocyte immunophenotyping, p. 306


Total CD4

280 (normal: 600-1500 cells/mL)


18% (normal: 60%-75%)

CD4/CD8 ratio

0.58 (normal: >1.0)

Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) viral load, p. 297

75,000 copies/mL


1. Diagnostic Analysis: establish a diagnostic analysis of this case supported by a clinical guideline : 

-summary of signficiant clinical data

– create a diagnostic rationale of the case including diagnosis and clinical data that support it  


Critical Thinking Questions


1.      What is the relationship between levels of CD4 lymphocytes and the likelihood of clinical complications from AIDS?

2.      Why does the United States Public Health Service recommend monitoring CD4 counts every 3 to 6 months in patients infected with HIV?

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