Assignment history

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Assignment history

Assignment history
Modern History Sour cebook: The Nanking Massacr e, 1937 T he J a panese o ccu patio n o f N ankin g, t h e c a pita l o f t h e R ep ublic o f C hin a, l e a d t o o ne o f t h e g re a te st h orro rs o f t h e c en tu ry. T his e yew itn ess r e p ort w as f ile d b y a N ew Y o rk T im es r e p orte r. A board t h e U .S .S . O ah u a t S han gh ai, D ec. 1 7 [ 1 937]. 
 T hro ugh w hole sa le a tr o citie s a n d v an dalis m a t N an kin g t h e J a p an ese A rm y h as t h ro w n a w ay a r a re o pportu nity t o g ain t h e r e sp ect a n d c o nfid en ce o f t h e C hin ese i n hab ita n ts a n d o f f o re ig n o pin io n t h ere …. T he k illin g o f c iv ilia n s w as w id esp re ad . F ore ig ners w ho t r a v ele d w id ely t h ro ugh t h e c ity W ed nesd ay f o und c iv ilia n d ead o n e v ery s tr e et. S om e o f t h e v ic tim s w ere a g ed m en , w om en a n d c h ild re n . P olic em en a n d f ir e m en w ere s p ecia l o bje cts o f a tta ck . M an y v ic tim s w ere b ay onete d a n d s o m e o f t h e w ounds w ere b arb aro usly c ru el. A ny p ers o n w ho r a n b ecau se o f f e ar o r e x cite m en t w as l ik ely t o b e k ille d o n t h e s p ot a s w as a n y o ne c au ght b y r o vin g p atr o ls i n s tr e ets o r a lle y s a fte r d ark . M an y s la y in gs w ere w itn esse d b y f o re ig ners . T he J a p an ese l o otin g a m ounte d a lm ost t o p lu nderin g o f t h e e n tir e c ity . N early e v ery b uild in g w as e n te re d b y J a p an ese s o ld ie rs , o fte n u nder t h e e y es o f t h eir o ff ic ers , a n d t h e m en t o ok w hate v er t h ey w an te d . T he J a p an ese s o ld ie rs o fte n i m pre sse d C hin ese t o c arry t h eir l o ot…. T he m ass e x ecu tio ns o f w ar p ris o ners a d ded t o t h e h orro rs t h e J a p an ese b ro ught t o N an kin g. A fte r k illin g t h e C hin ese s o ld ie rs w ho t h re w d ow n t h eir a rm s a n d s u rre n dere d , t h e J a p an ese c o m bed t h e c ity f o r m en i n c iv ilia n g arb w ho w ere s u sp ecte d o f b ein g f o rm er s o ld ie rs . I n o ne b uild in g i n t h e r e fu gee z o ne 4 00 m en w ere s e iz ed . T hey w ere m arc h ed o ff , t ie d i n b atc h es o f f if ty , b etw een l in es o f r if le m en a n d m ach in e g unners , t o t h e e x ecu tio n g ro und. J u st b efo re b oard in g t h e s h ip f o r S han ghai t h e w rite r w atc h ed t h e e x ecu tio n o f 2 00 m en o n t h e B und [ d ik e]. T he k illin gs t o ok t e n m in ute s. T he m en w ere l in ed a g ain st a w all a n d s h ot. T hen a n um ber o f J a p an ese , a rm ed w ith p is to ls , t r o d n onch ala n tly a ro und t h e c ru m ple d b odie s, p um pin g b ulle ts i n to a n y t h at w ere s till k ic k in g. T he a rm y m en p erfo rm in g t h e g ru eso m e j o b h ad i n vite d n av y m en f ro m t h e w ars h ip s a n ch ore d o ff t h e B und t o v ie w t h e s c en e. A l a rg e g ro up o f m ilita ry s p ecta to rs a p pare n tly g re atly e n jo yed t h e s p ecta cle . W hen t h e f ir s t c o lu m n o f J a p an ese t r o ops m arc h ed f ro m t h e S outh G ate u p C hungsh an R oad t o w ard t h e c ity ‘s B ig C ir c le , s m all k nots o f C hin ese c iv ilia n s b ro ke i n to s c atte rin g c h eers , s o g re at w as t h eir r e lie f t h at t h e s ie g e w as o ver a n d s o h ig h w ere t h eir h opes t h at t h e J a p an ese w ould r e sto re p eace a n d o rd er. T here a re n o c h eers i n N an kin g n ow f o r t h e J a p an ese . B y d esp oilin g t h e c ity a n d p opula tio n t h e J a p an ese h av e d riv en d eep er i n to t h e C hin ese a r e p re sse d h atr e d t h at w ill s m old er t h ro ugh t e ars a s f o rm s o f t h e a n ti J a p an is m t h at T okyo p ro fe sse s t o b e f ig htin g t o e ra d ic ate f ro m C hin a. T he c ap tu re o f N an kin g w as t h e m ost o verw helm in g d efe at s u ff e re d b y t h e C hin ese a n d o ne o f t h e m ost t r a g ic m ilita ry d eb acle s i n t h e h is to ry o f m odern w arfa re . I n a tte m ptin g t o d efe n d N an kin g t h e C hin ese a llo w ed t h em se lv es t o b e s u rro unded a n d t h en s y ste m atic ally s la u ghte re d …. T he f lig ht o f t h e m an y C hin ese s o ld ie rs w as p ossib le b y o nly a f e w e x its . I n ste ad o f s tic k in g b y t h eir m en t o h old t h e i n vad ers a t b ay w ith a f e w s tr a te g ic ally p la ced u nits w hile t h e o th ers w ith dre w , m an y a rm y l e ad ers d ese rte d , c au sin g p an ic a m ong t h e r a n k a n d f ile . T hose w ho f a ile d t o e sc ap e t h ro ugh t h e g ate l e ad in g t o H sia k w an a n d f ro m t h ere a cro ss t h e Y an gtz e w ere c au ght a n d e x ecu te d …. W hen t h e J a p an ese c ap tu re d H sia k w an g ate t h ey c u t o ff a ll e x it f ro m t h e c ity w hile a t l e ast a t h ir d o f t h e C hin ese A rm y s till w as w ith in t h e w alls . B ecau se o f t h e d is o rg an iz atio n o f t h e C hin ese a n um ber o f u nits c o ntin ued f ig htin g T uesd ay n oon, m an y o f t h ese n ot r e aliz in g t h e J a p an ese h ad s u rro unded t h em a n d t h at t h eir c au se w as h opele ss. J a p an ese t a n k p atr o ls s y ste m atic ally e lim in ate d t h ese . T uesd ay m orn in g, w hile a tte m ptin g t o m oto r t o H sia k w an , I e n co unte re d a d esp era te g ro up o f a b out t w en ty f iv e C hin ese s o ld ie rs w ho w ere s till h old in g t h e N in gpo G uild B uild in g o n C hungah an R oad . T hey l a te r s u rre n dere d . T housa n ds o f p ris o ners w ere e x ecu te d b y t h e J a p an ese . M ost o f t h e C hin ese s o ld ie rs w ho h ad b een i n te rn ed i n t h e s a fe ty z o ne w ere s h ot i n m asse s. T he c ity w as c o m bed i n a s y ste m atic h ouse t o h ouse s e arc h f o r m en h av in g k nap sa ck m ark s o n t h eir s h ould ers o r o th er s ig ns o f h av in g b een s o ld ie rs . T hey w ere h erd ed t o geth er a n d e x ecu te d . M an y w ere k ille d w here t h ey w ere f o und, i n clu din g m en i n nocen t o f a n y a rm y c o nnectio n a n d m an y w ounded s o ld ie rs a n d c iv ilia n s. I w itn esse d t h re e m ass e x ecu tio ns o f p ris o ners w ith in a f e w h ours W ed nesd ay. I n o ne s la u ghte r a t a n k g un w as t u rn ed o n a g ro up o f m ore t h an 1 00 s o ld ie rs a t a b om b s h elte r n ear t h e M in is tr y o f C om munic atio ns. A f a v orite m eth od o f e x ecu tio n w as t o h erd g ro ups o f a d ozen m en a t e n tr a n ces o f d ugout a n d t o s h oot t h em s o t h e b odie s t o pple d i n sid e. D ir t t h en w as s h ovele d i n a n d t h e m en b urie d . S in ce t h e b eg in nin g o f t h e J a p an ese a ssa u lt o n N an kin g t h e c ity p re se n te d a f rig htf u l a p peara n ce. T he C hin ese f a cilitie s f o r t h e c are o f a rm y w ounded w ere t r a g ic ally i n ad eq uate , s o a s e arly a s a w eek a g o i n ju re d m en w ere s e en o fte n o n t h e s tr e ets , s o m e h obblin g, o th ers c ra w lin g a lo ng s e ek in g t r e atm en t. C iv ilia n c asu altie s a ls o w ere h eav y, a m ountin g t o t h ousa n ds. T he o nly h osp ita l o pen w as t h e A m eric an m an ag ed U niv ers ity H osp ita l a n d i ts f a cilitie s w ere i n ad eq uate f o r e v en a f ra ctio n o f t h ose h urt. N an kin g’s s tr e ets w ere l itte re d w ith d ead . S om etim es b odie s h ad t o b e m oved b efo re a u to m obile s c o uld p ass. T he c ap tu re o f H sia k w an G ate b y t h e J a p an ese w as a cco m pan ie d b y t h e m ass k illin g o f t h e d efe n ders , w ho w ere p ile d u p a m ong t h e s a n dbag s, f o rm in g a m ound s ix f e et h ig h. L ate W ed nesd ay t h e J a p an ese h ad n ot r e m oved t h e d ead , a n d t w o d ay s o f h eav y m ilita ry t r a ff ic h ad b een p assin g t h ro ugh, g rin din g o ver t h e r e m ain s o f m en , d ogs a n d h ors e s. T he J a p an ese a p pear t o w an t t h e h orro rs t o r e m ain a s l o ng a s p ossib le , t o i m pre ss o n t h e C hin ese t h e t e rrib le r e su lts o f r e sis tin g J a p an . C hungah an R oad w as a l o ng a v en ue o f f ilth a n d d is c ard ed u nif o rm s, r if le s, p is to ls , m ach in e g uns, f ie ld pie ces, k niv es a n d k nap sa ck s. I n s o m e p la ces t h e J a p an ese h ad t o h itc h t a n ks t o d eb ris t o c le ar t h e r o ad . _ ___________________________________________________________________________ F ro m F . T illm an , ” A ll C ap tiv es S la in ,” T he N ew Y ork T im es, D ecem ber 1 8, 1 937, p p. 1 , 1 0. T his t e x t i s p art o f t h e I n te rn et M odern H is to ry S ourc eb ook . T he S ourc eb ook i s a c o lle ctio n o f p ublic d om ain a n d c o py-p erm itte d t e x ts f o r i n tr o ducto ry l e v el c la sse s i n m odern E uro pean a n d W orld h is to ry . U nle ss o th erw is e i n dic ate d t h e s p ecif ic e le ctr o nic f o rm o f t h e d ocu m en t i s c o pyrig ht. P erm is sio n i s g ra n te d f o r e le ctr o nic c o pyin g, d is tr ib utio n i n p rin t f o rm f o r e d ucatio nal p urp ose s a n d p ers o nal u se . I f y ou d o r e d uplic ate t h e d ocu m en t, i n dic ate t h e s o urc e. N o p erm is sio n i s g ra n te d f o r c o m merc ia l u se o f t h e S ourc eb ook. ( c ) P au l H als a ll A ug 1 997 
 h als a ll@ murra y.f o rd ham .e d u Additional Documents J ap an ese T ex tb ook ( D ocu m en t A ) T he f o llo w in g i s a n e xcerp t f r o m t h e J a panese N ew H is to ry T ex tb ook . T his t e xtb ook w as c re a te d b y t h e J a panese S ocie ty f o r H is to ry T extb ook R efo rm a nd w as f ir st p ublis h ed i n 2 005. T he b ook w as s u ppose d t o b e t h e n ew s ta ndard t e xtb ook f o r a ll h ig h s c h ool s tu den ts i n J a pan. “ In A ugust 1 937, t w o J a p an ese s o ld ie rs w ere s h ot t o d eath i n S han ghai ( t h e l a rg est c ity i n C hin a ) . A fte r t h is i n cid en t, t h e h ostilitie s b etw een J a p an a n d C hin a e sc ala te d ( b eca m e m ore i n te n se ) . J a p an ese m ilita ry o ff ic ia ls t h ought C hia n g K ai- s h ek ( t h e C hin ese l e a der) w ould s u rre n der i f t h ey c ap tu re d N an kin g , t h e n atio n’s c ap ita l. J a p an ese f o rc es t o ok o ver t h at c ity i n D ecem ber. B ut C hia n g K ai- s h ek h ad m oved h is c ap ita l t o t h e r e m ote c ity o f C hongqin g. T he c o nflic t c o ntin ued . N ote : A t t h is t im e, m an y C hin ese s o ld ie rs a n d c iv ilia n s w ere k ille d o r w ounded b y J a p an ese t r o ops. T his i s k now n a s t h e N an kin g I n cid en t. H ow ev er, h is to ric al e v id en ce h as r a is e d d oubts a b out t h e a ctu al n um ber o f v ic tim s k ille d o r i n ju re d d urin g t h e i n cid en t. N o c le ar e v id en ce h as b een f o und s h ow in g J a p an ese m ilita ry o r p olic e o ff ic ia ls t o ok C hin ese w om en b y f o rc e ( r a pe) . ” S ourc e: T he N ew H is to ry T ex tb ook, t r a nsla te d b y t h e J a panese S ocie ty f o r H is to ry T extb ook R efo rm , p ublis h ed i n 2 005 C hin ese T ex tb ook ( D ocu m en t B ) T he f o llo w in g i s a n e xcerp t f r o m C hin ese H is to ry — Textb ook f o r H ig h S ch ool, t h e S ta te -s p onso re d t e xtb ook f o r h ig h s c h ools i n m odern d ay C hin a. “ T he N anjin g M assa cre : I n D ecem ber 1 937, t h e J a p an ese m ilita ry c ap tu re d N an jin g. T he J a p an ese m ilita ry c o m mitte d b lo ody a tr o citie s a g ain st t h e r e sid en ts o f N an jin g a n d p ris o ners o f w ar, k illin g t h em i n e x tr e m ely c ru el m eth ods i n clu din g m ass e x ecu tio n, b urn in g, b ury in g a liv e, b eh ead in g, a n d b itin g b y d ogs. T he N an jin g M assa cre w as t h e m ost h orrib le e v en t i n w orld h is to ry . A cco rd in g t o s ta tis tic s, t h e e stim ate o f t h e d eath s c au se d b y J a p an ese a tr o citie s a g ain st u narm ed N an jin g r e sid en ts a m ounte d t o m ore t h an 3 00,0 00 j u st d urin g t h e s ix w eek s o f t h e o ccu patio n b y t h e J a p an ese m ilita ry . B etw een 2 0,0 00 a n d 8 0,0 00 C hin ese w om en w ere r a p ed –a n d m an y s o ld ie rs d id t h in gs w ors e t h an r a p e. T hey d is e m bow ele d ( re m ove s o m eo ne’s g uts ) w om en a n d n aile d t h em a liv e t o w alls . T he N an jin g M assa cre i s o ne o f t h e g re ate st a cts o f v io le n ce p erp etr a te d b y t h e J a p an ese a g gre sso rs o n t h e C hin ese p eo ple . T he J a p an ese w ere s o b ru ta l i n N an jin g t h at e v en t h eir N azi a llie s i n t h e c ity w ere s h ock ed .” S ourc e: C hin ese H is to ry — Tex tb ook f o r H ig h S ch ool, p ublis h ed 1 998. C hin ese S urv iv or A cco u nt ( D ocu m en t C ) T he f o llo w in g i s t h e s u rv iv o r a cco unt o f X ia S hu-q in , a C hin ese r e sid en t o f N ankin g t h at w as 7 y ea rs o ld a t t h e t im e o f t h e J a panese i n va sio n i n 1 937. X ia S hu-q in t o ld t h is s to ry t o a C hin ese i n te rv ie w er i n J u ne 2 005. “ It w as a b out t e n i n t h e m orn in g w hen a d ozen J a p an ese s o ld ie rs w ith r if le s a n d f ix ed b ay onets ( k n iv es a t t h e e n d o f t h eir g uns) r u sh ed i n to t h e h ouse . T hey s h ot m y f a th er a n d g ra b bed m y b ab y s is te r, w ho w as b ein g b re ast- fe d b y m y m oth er. T hey s ta b bed t h e b ab y t o d eath a n d s tr ip ped m y m oth er a n d r a p ed h er. T hen t h e J a p an ese k ille d m y g ra n dpare n ts a n d d ra g ged t w o o f m y s is te rs o ut o f o ur h ouse a n d r a p ed t h em . T hen t h ey s ta b bed m e a n d m y 3 -y ear o ld s is te r w ith b ay onets . I s a w b oth o f m y o ld er s is te rs l y in g i n p ools o f b lo od, d ead .” S ourc e: X ia S hu-q in , “ Surv iv o r t e lls o f N ankin g M assa cre h orro rs.” P ublis h ed i n C hin a D aily , a p opula r C hin ese n ew sp aper, o n J u ne 7 , 2 005. J ap an ese S old ie r A cco u nt ( D ocu m en t D ) T he f o llo w in g i s t h e a cco unt o f S hir o A zu m a, a J a panese s o ld ie r t h at p artic ip ate d i n t h e N ankin g M assa cre i n 1 937. T his i s a n e xcerp t f r o m h is d ia ry t h at h e w ro te d urin g h is t im e a s a s o ld ie r i n C hin a. T he d ia ry w as p ublis h ed i n 1 987. “ W e h ad f u n k illin g C hin ese . W hen w e c au ght s o m e C hin ese c iv ilia n s, w e e ith er b urie d t h em a liv e, o r p ush ed t h em i n to a f ir e , o r b eat t h em t o d eath w ith c lu bs. W hen t h ey w ere h alf d ead w e p ush ed t h em i n to d itc h es a n d b urn ed t h em , t o rtu rin g t h em t o d eath . E very one g ets h is e n te rta in m en t t h is w ay. I t’s l ik e k illin g d ogs a n d c ats . W e s e n t o ut t r u ck s i n to t h e c ity t o s e iz e w om en . O nce w e c ap tu re d t h em , w e t o ok t u rn s r a p in g t h em . W e d id n ot s p are o ld w om en o r y oung g ir ls o f t h is t r e atm en t. O nce w e w ere f in is h ed r a p in g t h em , w e a lw ay s s ta b bed a n d k ille d t h em . W hen w e w ere r a p in g t h em , w e l o oked a t t h em l ik e t h ey w ere w om en . B ut w hen w e k ille d t h em w e j u st t h ought o f t h em a s s o m eth in g l ik e a p ig . W e d id e v ery th in g f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e E m pero r, t h e r a p in g, t h e k illin g, e v ery th in g.” S ourc e: S hir o A zu m a, T he D ia ry o f S hir o A zu m a , p ublis h ed i n 1 987. A m eric a n T ex tb ook ( D ocu m en t E ) T he f o llo w in g i s a n e xcerp t f r o m a n A m eric a n t e xtb ook e xp la in in g t h e J a panese a tta ck o n N ankin g. “ In 1 936, a b ord er i n cid en t t o uch ed o ff a f u ll- s c ale w ar b etw een J a p an a n d C hin a. J a p an ese f o rc es s w ep t i n to n orth ern C hin a. D esp ite h av in g a m illio n s o ld ie rs , J a p an ’s a rm y l e d b y J ia n g J ie sh i w as n o m atc h f o r t h e b ette r e q uip ped a n d t r a in ed J a p an ese . B eijin g a n d o th er n orth ern c itie s a s w ell a s t h e c ap ita l, N an jin g, f e ll t o t h e J a p an ese i n 1 937. J a p an ese t r o ops k ille d t e n s o f t h ousa n ds o f c ap tu re d s o ld ie rs a n d c iv ilia n s i n N an jin g. F orc ed t o r e tr e at w estw ard , J ia n g J ie sh i s e t u p a n ew c ap ita l a t C hongqin g. A t t h e s a m e t im e, C hin ese g uerilla s l e d b y C hin a’s C om munis t l e ad er, M ao Z ed ong, c o ntin ued t o f ig ht t h e J a p an ese i n t h e c o nquere d a re a. S ourc e: M cD ougal L itte l, M odern W orld H is to ry : P atte rn s o f I n te ra ctio n. P ublis h ed 2 006.
Assignment history
W orld H is to ry M r. M attk e N am e: The “Nanjing Incident” and Historical Consciousness D ir e ctio n s – A “ F act” i s a n i te m t h at i s g en era lly i n dis p uta b le : f o r e x am ple , “ W est D e P ere H ig h S ch ool i s a p ublic h ig h s c h ool i n W is c o nsin .” A “ tr u th ” i s s o m eth in g t h at i s u p t o i n te rp re ta tio n a n d i s d ep en den t o n w ho i s m ak in g s a id c la im . F or e x am ple , s o m e w ould s a y t h at “ W est D e P ere H ig h S ch ool i s t h e b est p ublic h ig h s c h ool i n t h e s ta te o f W is c o nsin .” S om e w ould d is p ute t h is s ta te m en t, a n d s o m e w ould v erif y i t, b ut i t i s a m in or e x am ple o f h ow a “ tr u th ” i s n ot a lw ay s v ie w ed t h e s a m e w ay f ro m d if f e re n t s id es. T oday, y ou w ill e x am in e a n e v en t t h at o ccu rre d i n t h e e arly y ears o f W orld W ar I I; i t i s g en era lly a g re ed t h at t h is e v en t o ccu rre d a t t h e h an ds o f J a p an ese s o ld ie rs , a n d a t t h e e x pen se o f t h e C hin ese p opula tio n o f N an jin g. P le ase r e sp ectf u lly e x am in e t h e f o llo w in g r e so urc es a n d m ak e a d ete rm in atio n a s t o w hat w e s h ould c all t h is e v en t. M odern H is to ry S ourc eb ook 1 . W hat i s t h e s o urc e o f t h is a cco unt? D oes t h is l e ad y ou t o b elie v e t h at i t i s c re d ib le ? W hy o r w hy n ot? 2 . P le ase d esc rib e w hat h ap pen ed i n N an jin g i n D ecem ber 1 937, a cco rd in g t o t h is s o urc e. 3 . W hic h i te m i s t h e m ost s u rp ris in g t o y ou a s y ou r e ad t h is a rtic le ? 4 . W hat w ould t h e p ublic r e sp onse b e t o day i f a n a rtic le l ik e t h is w ere p rin te d i n a m odern A m eric an n ew sp ap er/o nlin e s o urc e? P le ase e x pla in . A dditio nal D ocu m en ts 1 . P le ase d esc rib e t h e d if fe re n ces b etw een t h e a cco unts o f t h is i n cid en t i n D ocu m en t A a n d D ocu m en t B . H ow d o y ou b elie v e t h ese i n flu en ce t h e p erc ep tio ns t h at c h ild re n o f e ach n atio n h av e a b out t h is e v en t? 2 . I n D ocu m en t C , t h is s to ry w as r e calle d n early 7 0 y ears a fte r i t o ccu rre d . D oes t h is i n flu en ce y our o pin io n o n w heth er o r n ot i t s h ould b e b elie v ed ? W hy o r w hy n ot? 3 . W hat a p pears t o b e t h e m ood o f t h e J a p an ese s o ld ie r i n t h is a cco unt? H ow d o y ou k now ? 4 . H ow d oes t h e A m eric an t e x tb ook d esc rib e w hat h ap pen ed i n N an jin g? W hy d o y ou b elie v e t h ey c h ose t o t e ll t h e s to ry t h is w ay ? 5 . O vera ll, w hat d o t h ese a cco unts t e ll u s a b out t h e i n cid en t i n N an jin g? B ase d o n w hat y ou h av e a n aly zed , w hat s h ould t h is e v en t b e c alle d ? ( In vasio n o f N an jin g, R ap e o f N an jin g, B attle o f N an jin g, I n cid en t a t N an jin g, s o m eth in g e ls e ?) W hy? H is to ric al P ers p ectiv es N ow i t i s t im e t o l o ok a t a n oth er e v en t f ro m W orld W ar I I i n volv in g J a p an : t h e u se o f a to m ic w eap ons b y t h e U nite d S ta te s. A gain , i t i s a “ fa ct” t h at t h e U nite d S ta te s u se d a to m ic w eap ons o n J a p an , b ut t h e “ tr u th ” o f w heth er o r n ot i t w as “ n ecessa ry ” i s o pen t o i n te rp re ta tio n. P le ase u se y our p rio r k now le d ge, a n d a s im ple w eb s e arc h , t o d ete rm in e h ow e ach n atio n w ould m ost l ik ely t e ach t h eir s tu den ts a b out o ur u se o f a to m ic w eap ons: ● J a p an ● U nite d S ta te s ● R ussia ● C hin a

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