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Your Unit 5 Research Methods paper is a culmination of everything you researched about your selected topic in Criminal Justice. You will now synthesize your collected information from your Unit 4 problem statement and Annotated Bibliography. That means you will provide your personal assessment in a professional analysis research paper. Here is your roadmap:

  • Unit 4 DB – You wrote a problem statement and described the issue.
  • Unit 4 IP – You conducted research by creating 5 Annotated Bibliographies.
  • Unit 5 IP – You will now use your Unit 4 Annotated Bibliography to create your Literature Review. You will include a title page, an introduction to the problem, a topic analysis, a conclusion and a reference page See below for detailed information on how to write your Unit 5 Literature Review – and how to format your paper.

Here is a basic outline for you to follow for your Unit 5 Research Methods paper:

  • Title Page –

APA formatted.

  • Introduction to the Problem –  – This is where you discuss the issues or problems in your chosen topic. You may reuse your DB4 problem statement for this part of your research paper, as long as you make any applicable updates, based upon your research – and edit it so that it is not longer than 1 page.
  • Literature Review – – This is where you discuss or write about background information that you discovered when you completed your 5 Annotated Bibliographies in Unit 4. Do not copy-and-paste your Annotated Bibliography into your research paper. Instead, write in paragraph form, about the information that you discovered and documented in your Annotated Bibliography. Specifically, in your literature review, you will discuss what those authors wrote about in their articles. 
  • Topic Analysis –  – This is where you present your own personal, professional and scholarly analysis about your topic, which is based on all of your research.
  • Conclusion – – This is where you present your final conclusions and recommendations on how to mitigate or possibly solve the research problem(s) that were identified.
  • Reference Page – APA formatted.


Impact of Racial Profiling

Student Name



Racial profiling is as prejudiced behavior by law enforcer’s officials by aiming individuals for crime suspicion based on their ethnicity, race, national origin, and religion. Law enforcement officials rely on individuals’ characteristics and believe they were associated with a particular crime (Headley and Wright, 2020). An example of racial profiling is when law enforcers stop drivers belonging to a specific race after they have violated minor traffic rules or when they use race or religion to determine the pedestrians’ viability to search for illegal contraband.

Racial profiling is problematic because it continues to be a profoundly longstanding issue in the United States despite the claims that the country has entered the post-colonial era. Racial profiling happens daily in cities and towns within the country, with law enforcement and private security continues to target individuals of color by holding humiliating and frightening searches, interrogations, and detentions without proper proof of criminal activity (Pittman, 2020). The United States constitution rules racial profiling illegal because the constitution mandates to treat its citizens equally and free them from unreasonable seizures and searches. Racial profiling is highly ineffective and its only outcome is the alienation of communities from the safety of law enforcement, obstructs community policing efforts, and destroys the reputation of law enforcement. This makes them lose trust and credibility among the people they swear to serve. Therefore, policies to oversee this matter must be formulated because it is increasing rift among communities with many innocent lives being lost every year and millions of state property getting destroyed.


Headley, A. M., & Wright, J. E. (2020). Is representation enough? Racial disparities in levels of force and arrests by police. 
Public Administration Review
80(6), 1051-1062.

Pittman, C. (2020). “Shopping while Black”: Black consumers’ management of racial stigma and racial profiling in retail settings. 
Journal of Consumer Culture
20(1), 3-22.


Annotated Bibliography

Brittany Benjamin


Riccucci, N. M., Van Ryzin, G. G., & Jackson, K. (2018). Representative bureaucracy, race, and policing: A survey experiment. 
Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory
28(4), 506-518.

The authors are employing a theoretical strategy of symbolic representation to determine whether black police officers within local agencies have the power to influence how white and black citizens judge their performance, fairness and trustworthiness in terms of citizen complaints about police misconduct. The results identify that there is high perceived trust, performance, fairness and trust among black citizens when the agency is made up of many black officers. however, the impact of greater black law enforcement representation in the agency is perceived negatively. This is an indication that symbolic representation in the law enforcement agency have a significant influence to how people judge and view the law enforcement department.

Teasley, M. L., Schiele, J. H., Adams, C., & Okilwa, N. S. (2018). Trayvon Martin: Racial profiling, Black male stigma, and social work practice. 
Social Work
63(1), 37-46.

In their study, Teasley et al., (2018) focus on addressing the gap existing in social literature on the deleterious impacts of racial profiling as it relates to the law enforcers targeting male African-Americans. The authors have used the case of Trayvon Martin to demonstrate how black male stigma and racial profiling can help in dispensing social injustice and inequality for African American men. The author find that the increasing profiling and discrimination of black men can only be resolved by working with social organizations to neutralize the effect.

Kovera, M. B. (2019). Racial disparities in the criminal justice system: Prevalence, causes, and a search for solutions. 
Journal of Social Issues
75(4), 1139-1164

Kovera (2019) identify that racial profiling within the criminal justice system is prevalent in key areas such as policing, populations, prison and participation on jury proceedings. The author identify that the issue continues to persist due to the bias existing in the composition of jury making it difficult to eradicate reduce the current racial bias. Therefore, the author proposes that implementation of more general policies that will not be limited to a particular race will be effective in eliminating the current bias.

Pittman, C. (2020). “Shopping while Black”: Black consumers’ management of racial stigma and racial profiling in retail settings. 
Journal of Consumer Culture
20(1), 3-22.

The author is drawing on qualitative data obtained from 55 African-Americans living around the New York area. The goal was to determine their experience with consumer racial profiling. The findings of their study indicate that race has the power to transform the status and meaning attached to products when they are owned or sought out by racial minorities. The examination of Black’s experiences with retail racism and cultural techniques reveal that they tend to adopt different treatment when they are treated in an indiscriminating way.

Gaston, S. (2019). Enforcing race: A neighborhood-level explanation of Black–White differences in drug arrests. 
Crime & Delinquency
65(4), 499-526.

The author aims to investigate the origin of black-white differences when law enforcement officers are performing drug arrest by performing a neighborhood assessment of the differences in police discriminatory scrutiny and policing hypotheses. The author examines arrests made in 78 neighborhoods in St. Louis from 2009 and 2013. The findings identify that neighborhood racial composition widely shapes drug enforcement policing, drug associated calls for service by citizens, property crime and violent rates and social economic disadvantage. Therefore, the author concludes that officers tend to engage in ‘out of place’ profiling when enforcing drug laws as suspects are jailed in terms of race.


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