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first thing you need to due: 

Cement your research topic – decide which specific phenomenon or behavior you will be presenting your research upon

Bring in three research articles (at minimum) related to the topic that you intend to research

Finally, based on the articles, answer the following questions:

1) What are the variables you’re interested in studying?  How will you plan on measuring 

these variables?  Clearly define the IV and DV, as well as the operational definition for the DV.

2) What scale of measurement do you think your variables will be? (Nominal, Ordinal, 

Interval, Ratio) Be sure to list each variable and the scale that is most appropriate for it.

3) How do you think you would get your data?  Specifically, how would you find 

participants?  What would you have them do?

4) What problems can you predict?  Honesty? Finding participants? What confounding 

variables might be present?  Any limitations?

5) Choose one of your articles for this portion.  What is the article you have selected?  What 

are the variables in that study?  What were the main findings?  What limitations were noted, if any?  List the methodological strengths and weaknesses. 

second thing : 

Are school exams considered to be reliable measures?

Ø As seen by the graph, it doesn’t seem so!

Ø Why are or aren’t they reliable?

What factors allow us to use them

   after this show of performance?

Discuss – address these questions and add any comments you feel are appropriate.  Associated concepts can be found in Chapter 4 and 5! I will give you  example for how you need to do it .  

    School exams are not reliable measures because as stated in our text, someone’s intelligence cannot really be measured. An IQ test can be used to get somewhat of an idea about someone’s intelligence, but scores can be subject to measurement errors. Measurement error is described as the distance between a true score, and one that is measured. ( Cozby & Bates, 2020) For reliability to exist with school exams, researchers will spend a lot of time paying attention to the test questions and behaviors of students for awhile. In other words, it is very difficult to find any correlation or relationship between variables for school exams. The reason it is difficult is because most school exams are administered by teachers. Teachers do not have to go through substantial training for creating test questions. As for standardized tests, it is still difficult to measure reliability because students would have to take the same test at two different times. ( Cozby & Bates, 2020) Also, there are a lot of different factors that could effect the exam scores such as, students not being prepared for the test, illness, or any learning disabilities. Another big factor, is that some students have a lot of anxiety during tests. As we learned in chapter four of the text, there are some confounding variables associated with studies. School administrators might not be able to fix the confounding variables, in order to successfully have an accurate school exam.   

Cozby, P. C., & Bates, S. (2020). Methods in behavioral research. McGraw-Hill Education. 

third thing : Respond to the question of your choosing, using both your textbook and your personal opinions to support your answers. 

1.Critical thinking involves thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating evidence. If a child is thinking critically, what are some strategies that can be observed? Give examples. Also, give examples of critical thinking that you use in everyday life as an adult. 


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