DropBox forTurnaround Schools Research Assignment
Turnaround Schools: Choose one Turnaround School in the United States and summarize the characteristics that made them successful. Include in characteristics:
- socioeconomic status,
- parental involvement,
- teacher quality,
- the measure of improvement,
- type of school (magnet, public, private, charter etc….)
Make sure your submission follows current APA guidelines, including cover and reference pages. You should reference all your sources and use in-text citations. Limit this assignment to 1 1/2 to 2 pages, not including the cover page and reference pages. Resources are included in the module to help with this assignment.
Use the rubric embedded within this assignment to guide your work. When reviewing the embedded rubric, it is critical to review the “longer description” of each indicator within the rubric, which provides a more in-depth description of the expectations for each section of this assignment.
DropBox forTurnaround Schools Research Assignment Turnaround Schools: Choose one Turnaround School in the United States and summarize the characteristics that made them successful. Include in charac
© 2011 Mass Insight Education 1 When Bold Steps Are Needed: What does it really take to turn around schools? Revised February 2011 (original document created October 2008 ) Analysis and Recommendations from The Turnaround Challenge report produced by Mass Insight Education © 2009 Mass Insight Education & Research Institute • Introduction: The history of failed turnaround • Task 1: Learn from schools that are proving it can be done and identify the challenges that have limited the impact of traditional reform strategies • Task 2: Define the non -negotiables for successful turnaround at scale • Task 3: Apply the non -negotiable strategies within a new, comprehensive set of structures and supports to serve highly challenged schools and districts statewide © 2011 Mass Insight Education 3 The story of school turnaround to date: marginal change = marginal results 3 © 2011 Mass Insight Education 4 High poverty schools are disproportionately low – performing 4 Every state’s challenge: Breaking the seemingly unbreakable connection between poverty and underperformance Note: California 8thGrade Math Scores, 2006 As poverty levels increase, achievement decreases Higher -poverty schools © 2011 Mass Insight Education 5 A reason for hope: Some schools dramatically beat the odds 5 Note: 2004 data © 2011 Mass Insight Education 6 The key intervention question 6 How do we take the DNA of high – performing, high -poverty schools and distribute it successfully at scale? “Instead of helping some kids beat the odds . . . why don’t we just change the odds? -Geoffrey Canada, Founder, Harlem Children’s Zone, 2004 © 2009 Mass Insight Education & Research Institute • Introduction: The history of failed turnaround • Task 1: Learn from schools that are proving it can be done and identify the challenges that have limited the impact of traditional reform strategies • Task 2: Define the non -negotiables for successful turnaround at scale • Task 3: Apply the non -negotiable strategies within a new, comprehensive set of structures and supports to serve highly challenged schools and districts statewide © 2011 Mass Insight Education 8 Effective schools serving disadvantaged students show a number of common characteristics 8 • Preparedness :skill levels of entering students • Relationships: from “us/them” and “my grade/your grade” to “we/all” • Relevance: making the learning incentive real • Environment: social support and community connectedness • Rigor :higher -expectation curriculum linked to standards • Assessment: focusing on what’s being learned, not taught • Differentiation: structured support tuned to student needs • Instructional capacity: professional culture of teaching & learning • Leadership capacity: team -based management of improvement • Freedom to act: authority over money, time, people, program • Incentives for human capital: Professional HR norms & mission – driven incentives A clear understanding of student needs Well -integrated strategies and capacity to deliver them Conditions and incentives that support the work © 2011 Mass Insight Education 9 readiness to ACT readiness to LEARN readiness to TEACH 7. Resource Authority 8. Resource Ingenuity 9. Agility in the Face of Turbulence 1. Safety, Discipline & Engagement 2. Action against Adversity 3. Close Student -Adult Relationships 4. Share Responsibility for Achievement 5. Personalization of Instruction 6. Professional Teaching Culture High -poverty, High performing Readiness Model How do high -performing, high -poverty schools do it ? © 2011 Mass Insight Education 10 The challenge: Virtually no high -performance work is being done in high -poverty settings at scale 10 © 2011 Mass Insight Education 11 Instead: Most scaled -up reform has been limited to providing help for marginal program change 11 © 2011 Mass Insight Education 12 Some interventions have also focused on changing people as well as programming 12 © 2011 Mass Insight Education 13 New experiments in some districts are requiring changes in operating conditions as well 13 © 2011 Mass Insight Education 14 Where we should all be aiming: Comprehensive reform that includes program , people, and conditions change 14 © 2011 Mass Insight Education 15 What’s Stopping You ? 15 Common barriers to achieving turnaround Human capacity – Adequacy of teacher workforce – Adequacy of top and distributed team leadership – Adequacy of outside support system (all partners and TA) Operating conditions – Freedom to act: authority over key resources (money, time, people, programming) to make mission -and data -driven decisions – Freedom from unproductive or overlapping compliance burdens – Incentives that drive adult (and student) behavior Resources – Adequacy of time for learning – Adequacy of time for teacher planning, collaboration, PD – Adequacy of resource support in general (class size, facilities, etc.) © 2011 Mass Insight Education 16 1. Most school reform shows up in schools as fairly disconnected projects 2. Even more recent efforts to make reform more comprehensive only address part of the challenge (see Readiness Triangle) 3. Truly comprehensive, transformational reform is difficult to achieve because it challenges conventional structures, processes, and “turf ” 4. Chronically underperforming schools and their districts present the most plausible access point to mount that kind of reform – because the need for real change is so clear The same observations can be made about most school reform efforts © 2011 Mass Insight Education 17 Three core principles on school turnaround design have emerged from this research : 17 1. Marginal change yields marginal results. • School turnaround differs substantially from school improvement. • School improvement is 99% of what’s been tried. • The high -performing, high -poverty schools show: we need a change process that leads to a dramatically different model for these schools . 2. Dramatic change requires bold, comprehensive action from the state, together with districts and partners • Many communities lack the collective will to act boldly on their own. • Acting boldly means addressing the basic operating context of schools and ensuring readiness to teach, learn, and act 3. In the end, it’s about people , more than programs. • Dramatic change at scale requires that states, regions, and districts find ways to add new capacity – and free up the most capable people currently in schools and districts to do their best work © 2009 Mass Insight Education & Research Institute • Introduction: The history of failed turnaround • Task 1: Learn from schools that are proving it can be done and identify the challenges that have limited the impact of traditional reform strategies • Task 2: Define the non -negotiables for successful turnaround at scale • Task 3: Apply the non -negotiable strategies within a new, comprehensive set of structures and supports to serve highly challenged schools and districts statewide © 2011 Mass Insight Education 19 What is school turnaround? a dramatic and comprehensive intervention in a low -performing school that: a) produces significant gains in achievement within two years; and b) readies the school for the longer process of transformation into a high -performance organization Turnaround is © 2011 Mass Insight Education 20 What’s needed to enable schools and districts to address the challenges of chronically underperforming schools? Conditions Change the rules and incentives governing people, time, money, & program ZONES Capacity Build turnaround resources and human capacity in schools within the zone through Lead Partners and sufficient funding PARTNERSHIPS Clustering To get to scale, o rganize clusters of schools within the zone intentionally and systematically CLUSTERS OF SCHOOLS So: What would reform that incorporates all three sides of the readiness triangle look like? © 2011 Mass Insight Education 21 Conditions Change: Outside -the -system approaches, applied inside the system 21 © 2011 Mass Insight Education 22 Help current staff perform at a higher level • Staff development, coaching • Leadership development First Critical Element: PEOPLE Establish professional norms for HR management • Turnaround leaders have authority, resources to staff the school as needed to fulfill the turnaround plan • Incentives to recruit highly capable teachers • Flexibility on staff hiring, allocation, work rules • Flexibility, time to make staff development coherent Changing the operating conditions to support true turnaround, not just marginal change (1 of 4) Traditional School Improvement Comprehensive Turnaround © 2011 Mass Insight Education 23 Some initiatives: adjust schedule, within same -length school day and year • Block scheduling • Extra common planning time for educators Second Critical Element: TIME Expand school day and year and reinvent schedule, to fulfill turnaround plan • Significantly more time for teacher collaborating, instruction • Strategic assessment , re – engineering of schedule to support the plan Changing the operating conditions to support true turnaround, not just marginal change (2 of 4) Traditional School Improvement Comprehensive Turnaround © 2011 Mass Insight Education 24 No real impact on budgetary authority in most cases • Additional resources (usually staff development) Third Critical Element: MONEY Authority to re -allocate budget to support coherent plan • Ability to re -allocate budget strategically • Sufficient additional resources to support the plan • Pay for extra time • Pay for incentives • Pay for partner support Changing the operating conditions to support true turnaround, not just marginal change (3 of 4) Traditional School Improvement Comprehensive Turnaround © 2011 Mass Insight Education 25 Improve quality of current strategies • Consulting support • Curriculum, instruction, assessment tools and strategies Fourth Critical Element: PROGRAM Tailor program and overall school approach to suit needs of high – challenge enrollments • Coherent , whole -school plan • Integrate strategies to address impacts of poverty on students • Relief from compliance burden in order to focus on instruction Changing the operating conditions to support true turnaround, not just marginal change (4 of 4) Traditional School Improvement Comprehensive Turnaround © 2011 Mass Insight Education 26 Priority Goals Common Barriers Altered Conditions in Schools Pursuing Bold Turnaround Data Systems to support effective teaching Improving curriculum and instructional strategies Inadequate time for teacher collaboration and review of student work; rules and culture -norms blocking coaching roles, classroom visiting, peer review •Additional time in the school day and school year •Latitude to define, allocate staff strategically Monitoring student progress and individualizing instruction Inadequate time, inadequate technology, inadequate commitment and “project -itis” •Additional time •Flexibility over scheduling •Lead turnaround partner Monitoring teacher effectiveness and maximizing capacity Union and longstanding cultural opposition to data – based teacher performance evaluation •Suspension of union work rules •Teacher election -to -work agreements •Time for responsive PD Assessing ROI for budgeting purposes Silo -ized district bureaucracy •Nimbler “Zone” district office operating with 21 st-century management practices For example: improved data capacity produces few gains without other reforms Why the emphasis on conditions ? © 2011 Mass Insight Education 27 Key Implementation Strategies …Requiring mission -driven authority over People Readiness to Learn • Recruit and assign staff based on the needs of the high -poverty student population , using open recruiting and without restrictions on staff management like seniority, force -placing or bumping practices: • Hire people with background in human services, to enhance understanding in dealing with student challenges • Assign teachers based on student needs, and retain flexibility in assignments to meet needs of turbulence • Utilize all staff to participate in advisories, home visits and other student -adult close contact activities • Increase the number of staff who deal directly with students’ human and social needs : social workers, adjustment counselors, liaisons with social service organizations • Develop staff in areas critical to turnaround success , including • Training in effective classroom management and intervention to support safety and discipline • Development in in instructional methods that increase engagement (thematic, project -based or technology – based learning, cross -disciplinary learning) • Evaluate school and staff on success in addressing student challenges crucial to high -poverty population Readiness to Teach • Recruit and develop leadership that is experienced in the management of turnaround, including turbulence and buy -in • Leaders continuously adapt and triage student, teacher and school needs and challenges • Leaders use flexibility and persuasion rather than rigid standards & control • Recruit and develop staff for “new world” diagnostic and individualized instruction : • Target highly adaptive, problem -solving teaching ability by recruiting for and developing expertise in subject matter, pedagogy and continuous learning skills • Train teachers in data -driven decision making, intervention and differentiated instruction (for short -feedback loop assessment and adjustment of instruction) • Recruit, assign and develop staff to foster the responsive professional learning community required to effectively address the challenge, including distributing instructional leadership throughout the builiding and employing staff creatively to support achievement initiatives • Utilize the evaluation process to validate collaborative working and continuous learning , and to hold teachers and administrators accountable for performance Given flexible operating conditions: what becomes possible ? (1 of 4) © 2011 Mass Insight Education 28 Key Implementation Strategies …Requiring mission -driven authority over Time Readiness to Learn • Extend the school day to address the academic and social needs of high -poverty student population , including • Time for a robust, well -rounded curriculum and engaging teaching & learning practices (project -based learning, etc.) • Time to diagnose and address health and human service needs, and to provide direct instruction in good learning behaviors and life skills • Time for advisories and other student time with individual adult champions • Adjust the school schedule to foster close adult -student relationships by incorporating • Advisories • Looping and longer block schedules • Small -group tutorials • Increase student -adult contact time by improving the ratio of teachers and social support personnel to students • Adopt “early start” school configurations , with high schools operating grades 6 or 7 though 12, and elementaries benefitting from universal preschool feeders Readiness to Teach • Secure extra teacher hours necessary for a professional learning culture , with collaboration and development opportunities –every day or week –including: • Time to develop teachers and administrators to understand how poverty effects learning and performance, and how to implement strategies to address these impacts • Time for teachers to train and participate in data -driven decision making, intervention and differentiated instruction • Time for teachers to plan, share instructional practice and review student work as a team of experts (hospital model) • Adjust the school schedule and annual calendar to allow for critical personalized learning strategy , including: • The administration and rapid analysis of results from frequent, short feedback loop assessments • Regular and generous common planning blocks for teachers to act collaboratively in adjusting instruction Given flexible operating conditions: what becomes possible? (2 of 4) © 2011 Mass Insight Education 29 Key Implementation Strategies …Requiring mission -driven authority over Money Readiness to Learn • Use additional funds to • Allocate extra money to extend school day to address academic and social needs of high -poverty student population • Allocate money to decreasing class and possibly school size to enhance student -adult relationships • Raise additional financial resources by approaching private companies and philanthropic organizations . • Be creative in using public financing options and statutory program resources , within relevant restrictions, to fund turnaround strategies. • Identify and undertake capital improvements necessary for safety and the creation of a positive climate Readiness to Teach • Use additional funds to • Allocate extra money for teacher hours needed for participation in professional learning culture and individual/small group contact with students (from RA) • Allocate money to ensure that teacher support, training and resources will support performance expectatio ns • Use school control over budgets to • Differentiate teacher compensation for extra time or responsibilities (from RA) • Offer schoolwide financial incentives to implement turnaround approach and for attainment of performance objectives • Analyze existing budget and re -align spending to focus on turnaround goals and student achievement Given flexible operating conditions: what becomes possible? (3 of 4) © 2011 Mass Insight Education 30 Key Implementation Strategies …Requiring mission -driven authority over Program Readiness to Learn • Develop a rounded, engaging curriculum that, in addition to personalized instruction in the core areas of ELA and math: • Includes the arts, languages, technology, physical education and other avenues to learning • Increases engagement through interdisciplinary curricula, technology -based instruction, etc. • Addresses choice and the range of student needs (e.g. interest -based pathways , alternative programs for behavioral challenges) • Provides explicit instruction and guidance for the development of good learning behaviors • Provides direct instruction in life skills relevant to students’ situations (and addresses potential challenges, e.g. drug, alcohol, violence and drop -out prevention programs,) • Create programs to increase individual student -teacher contact, including: • Create advisory groups in which students participate regularly • Schedule regular home visits from teachers, advisors and counselors • Form alliances with community partners and social service providers to address: • Health needs (breakfast, eye exams, pregnancy, etc.), and • Human service needs (social, behavioral, abuse, homelessness, etc.) • Create programs to address safety and discipline , including: • Create well -defined but flexible routines and spell out codes of behavior in explicit and transparent ways. Embed these in school structure, rituals and culture. • Provide students with explicit instruction in cooperative learning and individual responsibility Readiness to Teach • Design and integrate a powerful personalized learning program to monitor and improve individual and group achievement, especially in the core areas of ELA and math: • Create aligned formative assessments • Develop tools and methods for data to be captured & used quickly in a short feedback loop to diagnose learning needs • Develop methods for using data to be used to improve curriculum & classroom instruction • Actively reshape and incorporate districtwide initiatives into school strategies for maximizing performance Given flexible operating conditions: what becomes possible? (4 of 4) © 2011 Mass Insight Education 31 An imperative to recruit and train school leaders who can: 1. Concentrate on a few changes with big, fast payoffs 2. Implement proven practices first; ask forgiveness later 3. Communicate a clear, positive vision 4. Collect, personally analyze, use data well 5. Enlist key influencers to support major change 6. Build culture of disclosure in open -air meetings 7. Require all staff to adopt changes – not optional 8. Act in relentless pursuit of goals, touting progress only as a passing way -station Note: Adapted from Kowal and Hassel, Turnarounds with New Leaders and Staff , Learning Point Associates, 2005. Capacity -Building/Internal (school leadership): Necessary turnaround skills among school leaders © 2011 Mass Insight Education 32 Capacity -building/external: Addressing the “ projectitis ” afflicting school reform © 2011 Mass Insight Education 33 Capacity -building/external: A new model with deeply embedded Lead Partners , integrating the work of other providers © 2011 Mass Insight Education 34 Function/ Role Traditional Model Lead Partner Authority None or advisory Full authority Accountability None (except to extend contract) Full accountability Intensity Varies, but often 1 day in school per month Fully embedded: managing the school Relationship to Other Partners None (usually) Full authority over all partner/ subcontractors Services Provided Single service (except for Comprehensive School Reform models) All academic services and oversight of all others Capacity -building/external: Differences between the traditional school/provider model and Lead Partners © 2009 Mass Insight Education & Research Institute • Introduction: The history of failed turnaround • Task 1: Learn from schools that are proving it can be done and identify the challenges that have limited the impact of traditional reform strategies • Task 2: Define the non -negotiables for successful turnaround at scale • Task 3: Apply the non -negotiable strategies within a new, comprehensive set of structures and supports to serve highly challenged schools and districts statewide © 2011 Mass Insight Education 36 Why has so little fundamental change occurred nationally in failing schools to date ? 36 No real help from NCLB; incremental reforms remain the common choice In state agencies, districts, schools, partners No successful models at scale, no real consensus even on definitions Failing schools have no constituency; hence, insufficient funding to date Lack of leverage Lack of capacity Lack of exemplars Lack of public will © 2011 Mass Insight Education 37 Understanding NCLB’s options … © 2011 Mass Insight Education 38 … and the choices being made in the field © 2011 Mass Insight Education 39 These gaps have led to state strategies that are insufficient to meet the challenge 39 Insufficient incentives for educators to choose major change – Too few positive incentives: reasons to opt into real transformation – No negative incentives: unattractive consequences for inaction – Lack of aggressive, clear performance targets Insufficient comprehensiveness, intensity, and sustainability – No state engagement in changing conditions – rules for adults – No overall “people strategy” – developing capacity for turnaround – No school clustering: limits effectiveness and scale – All “loose,” no “tight”: e.g., more systematic on curriculum, PD – Limited partner support: “light touch,” small scale, fragmented – Limited district connection to school improvement effort Insufficient commitment from the state – Lack of high -visibility public and private sector commitment – SEA lacks sufficient flexibility, authority, resources © 2011 Mass Insight Education 40 The scale of the problem Options beyond NCLB: The need for turnaround has coincided with an unprecedented amount of federal support Federal funding for turnaround •The 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (the “stimulus package”) requires states to take action on low – performing schools, and specifically targets schools identified for corrective action and restructuring •Between $3.5B in Title I School Improvement grants and the Race to the Top fund, $9B of federal funding is available for school improvement, with large individual state shares •Now, USED has mandated that each state identify and intervene in its bottom 5% of schools The increasing number of underperforming schools, combined with the new policy focus and influx of federal dollars, provides a rare opportunity for states and districts to undertake the dramatic reform needed in our lowest performing schools. © 2011 Mass Insight Education 41 Partnership Zones with flexible operating conditions • Supported by state policy and State Turnaround Office •Flexibility to make decisions and establish model systems for people, time, money, school programs The Partnership Zone: Model conditions, capacity through partners, scale through clusters School Cluster Supporting Partners Lead Partner State District Lead Partners working with districts to support clusters of 3 -5 schools • New -model partner with accountability for student achievement and responsibility to support school staffing • Lead Partner aligns the work of all outside programs and partners © 2011 Mass Insight Education 42 A framework to expand the spectrum of turnaround options © 2009 Mass Insight Education & Research Institute The report and related documents are the result of a research and development process led by Mass Insight with the support of various partners. It should be used in conjunction with the Main Report, The Turnaround Challenge: Why America’s best opportunity to dramatically improve student achievement lies in our worst performing schools , and a variety of other resources we have developed and distributed . This report was developed under a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. For more information on The Turnaround Challenge and our Partnership Zone Initiative, please visit our website at www.massinsight.org or contact us at [email protected]. Mass Insight Education & Research Institute • 18 Tremont Street, Suite 930 • Boston, MA 02108 • 617 -778 -1500 Copyright © 2011 by Mass Insight Education. Permission granted to the original recipient to copy this document, or sections of this document, without alteration or removal of this copyright notice, solely for non -commercial use with acknowledgement to the copyright holder.