For Kroger Co., indicate whether the following transactions would (1) increase, (2) decrease, or (3) have no effect on stockholders’ equity.
a. Paid creditors.
b. Made cash sales to customers.
c. Paid interest expense.
d. Purchased store equipment.
e. Paid dividends.
f. Borrowed money from the bank.
g. Sold store equipment at a loss.
h. Paid store rent.
i. Paid taxes.
j. Received interest income.