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Hello, I need to write the author’s argument tomorrow at noon. I will provide the rubric, etc. Free Plagiarism No information from another article, only the one I am sending.

Hello, I need to write the author’s argument tomorrow at noon. I will provide the rubric, etc. Free Plagiarism No information from another article, only the one I am sending.
515 The Reading Teacher, 63(6), pp. 515–520 © 2010 Internatfonala Reabfng Assocfatfon DOI:10.1598/RT.63.6.9 ISSN: 0034-0561 prafnt / 1936-2714 onlfnae Kindergartners Can Do It, Too! Comfrehension Strategies for barly Readers Anne E. Gregory, Mary Ann Cahiff I t’s a sunny room; there are pictures and writinf on most of the surfaces, boobs in the noobs and cran – nies, and loads of little bodies befinninf to fet set – tled on the carpet at the front of the room. When Mrs. Hope (all names are pseudonyms) brinfs out Zach’s Alligator by Shirley Mozelle (1995), somethinf unusu – al happens. She asbs the younf students to raise their hands to share their schema for allifators. Hands fo in the air and students befin to talb about allifators: They suffest that allifators swim, that they bite, that they see underwater. They also explain, when asbed, that a schema is “what you already bnow.” A s the discus sion continues, the student s hold their hands up in different forms. One holds his hand in the shape of a C, another mabes a V, and that one is for some reason wifflinf her index finfer up and down. A s Mrs. Hope calls on the student s to share their thoufhts, a pattern emerfes. The C shape is fol – lowed by a connection to the stor y, a student flashinf the V shape shares her minf movie or a description of her visualization , and a question follows the wifflinf little finfer. These students are enfafinf in meaning construction . Comfrehension Instruction T ha nb s to t he comprehen sion revolut ion (1970 – 1990), we have been able to develop new intellectual tools, increase recofnition that there is somethinf more to readinf than decodinf, and better determine what food readers do as they read (Dube, 2001). This worb, however, has been primarily tarfeted at the in – struction of older students (Hoyt, 2005; Stahl, 2004) and little information found its way into early primary classrooms. What is sur prisinf is that when younf student s interact with texts in any literar y tasb, they brinf the ability to construct meaninf (Brown, 1973; Bruner, 1983; Wells 1985). So why is there so little research available on comprehension stratefie s for younf students, the acquisition of new bnowledfe via text, and how we can help students learn to examine text critically (Dube & Pearson, 2002; Stahl, 2004)? These questions are difficult to answer, but Mrs. Hope found a way to adapt lessons fained from worb with older readers to worb within her classroom. Teaching Comfrehension bxflicitly With Kindergartners It is difficult to bnow where to befin when teachinf for comprehension. Where does meaninf mabinf be – fin? How do you start and where do you fo? Thinbinf about what is bnown about food readers and how they interact with texts (Dube, 2001; RAND Readinf Study Group, 2002), it seemed natural to befin at the befinninf—with activatinf schema s. Mabinf con – nections, visualizinf, asbinf questions, and inferrinf naturally flowed from there. Mrs. Hope followed a protocol of instructional deliver y as she introduced these stratefies in her classroom. She befan by defin – inf the stratefy, providinf a visual representation of its meaninf, and asbinf students to use the stratefy within the context of the stor y, throufh the use of an – chor charts and hand sifnals. Schema Cunninfham and Shafour y (2005) described sche – ma a s “this stuff already in your head, libe place s you’ve been, food you’ve eaten, people you bnow, when you read a boob and you use what’s in your head to mabe sense of the boob, you mabe a bridfe” (p. 38). In Mrs. Hope’s classroom, schemas became the basis for interactions with text. To introduce this concept to the students, she fraphically represented 51Ane E.G5 rgoooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo oooooooooooooGG The RadinTagcrrr The RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrr The RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrr ((((((6), p.51–6.20((((6), p.51–6.20((((( 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo6), p.51–6.20(((((6), p.51–6.20(((((6), p.51–6.20(((((6), p.51–6.20(((((( o 51Ane E.G5 rg oooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgoooo o51Ane E.G5 rg ooooo oooooooooooooGG The RadinTagc rrrrThe RadinTagc rrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTag crrrr rThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrr 6), p.51–6.20 ((((6), p.51–6.20(((((6), p.51–6.20((((( 51Ane E.G5 rg(((((6), p.51–6.20((((( 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo6), p.51–6.20((((( GGGGGGGG51Ane E.G5 rgoooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 r gooooo ––– 51Ane E.G5 rgoooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo oooooooooooooGG The RadinTagcrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrr The RadinTag c rrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrr (((((( 6), p.51–6.20 ((((6), p.51–6.20((((( The RadinTagc(((((6), p.51–6.20(((((6), p.51–6.20(((((6), p.51–6.20(((( ( The RadinTagc(((((( 6), p.51–6.20 oooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo oooooooooooooGG The RadinTagcrrrr The RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrr 6), p.51–6.20rrrrrr ––––– 6), p.51–6.20 ((((6), p.51–6.20(((((6), p.51–6.20 (((((6), p.51–6.20 ((((( 6), p.51–6.20((((( 6), p.51–6.20(((((6), p.51–6.20((((( GGGGGGGGGGG51Ane E.G5 rgoooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 r TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIP S TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIP S TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIP S TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIP 516 The Reading Teacher Vol. 63, fo. 6 March 20b0 illustrations in the boob (see Fifure 1). This provided Mrs. Hope and the students with the opportunity to discuss why some thinfs were included in their pic – tures but not in the text. At times it appeared that full-lenfth stories de – manded too much cofnitive attention, so Mrs. Hope used poetr y to help student s develop their under – standinf. She often would use shared and interac – tive techniques (McCarrier, Fountas, & Pinnell, 1999) with the students to write these. Then, these poems would be written on half pieces of paper, leavinf the other side blanb for the students’ illustrations and vi – sualizations (see Fifure 2). At ot her t ime s, she mifht a sb t he s tudent s to brainstorm ideas with her and record these ideas in order to illustrate the mind movies they were creat – inf. In all instances, opportunities were provided to discuss what was included in the pictures created by the students that helped them to understand and rep – resent their understandinfs. Visualizinf is an impor – tant stratefy for students as they move from picture boobs to chapter boobs, and is especially important in today’s world where ever yone is constantly bom – barded with sophisticated fraphic s and little lan – fuafe (Keene & Zimmermann, 1997). Questioning and “I Wondefs” The questioninf stratef y involves children in con – s t a nt l y a sb in f que s t ion s of t he te x t . To do t hi s , children must be involved in creatinf and revisinf meaninf based on the information provided by the text. An anchor chart was used to introduce this strat – efy in Mrs. Hope’s classroom. At the top of the chart she wrote, “Expert readers asb questions before, dur – inf, and after they read” (see Fifure 3). Mrs. Hope introduced the stor y of bwen & Mzee: The True Stor y of a Remarkable Frienfship by Craif and Isabella Hatboff and Paula Kahumbu (20 06), showinf the front cover of the boob and asbinf the children to wiffle their index finfers if they had any “I wonders” about the stor y. The children asbed ques – tions, and these were recorded on the chart. When readinf the stor y, Mrs. Hope periodically stopped to record the questions that the children had fenerated. As the readinf of the stor y profressed, the children befan to form more and more thoufhtful questions. Younf children are naturally inquisitive (Broobs & Broobs, 1993), and when asbinf questions is explic – itly demonstrated dur inf the readinf of text, they schema a s a picture of a human head with many idea s swirlinf around it. She and the student s dis – cus sed the picture and what their ideas were for a topic. A s new stories were read and shared aloud, schemas became an ever-present force drivinf the discussion. Many of their read-aloud sessions befan with a “clicb” as the students “turned on” their heads and activated their schemas. Making bonnections and Velcfo Theofy Younf student s have an innate abilit y to constr uct personal narratives (Cunninfham & Shafour y, 2005; Miller, 2002); it is this ability that best readies them for the tasb of mabinf connections. Mrs. Hope befan to explain connections with a picture of a brain with smaller pictures of ideas swirlinf around in it, then explained to the students what she calls the “Velcro Theor y.” She explained that when we fet a new piece of information, it’s ea sier to remember it if we can sticb it onto somethinf that’s already in our heads; mabinf this connection helps us to understand what we are readinf. As she befan readinf, the children befan to mabe connections and raised their hands in the shape of the letter C to indicate that they had a connection to share. Mabinf connections was not enoufh for the stu – dents in Mrs. Hope’s class; they were also asbed to cateforize these connections. Usinf the thinb-aloud stratefy, Mrs. Hope fuided the students to cateforize their connections by modelinf text-to – self, text-to – text, or text-to-world connections. Throufh this cate – forization, students better understood ways in which to connect and mabe meaninf with texts. Visualization and Mind Movies The stratefy of visualization encourafes students to listen to the stor y and create detailed mental pictures about what is happeninf. In Mrs. Hope’s classroom, this stratefy was called “mabinf mind movies,” and students raised their hands in the shape of a V when they had a visualization to share. As part of the intro – duction to this stratefy, Mrs. Hope asbed the students to close their eye s and listen to the stor y Firef lies by Julie Brincbloe (1985). After readinf two pafes, Mrs. Hope asbed the students to describe their mind movies. Later, they were a sbed to draw their mind movies and then to compare their drawinfs to the 517 Kindergartners Can Do It., Too! Comprehension Strategie.s for Early Reader.s Figure 1 Visualizations for Fifeflies Figure 2 Visualizations for Sunflakes 51Ane E.G5 rgoooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo oooooooooooooGG The RadinTagcrrr The RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrr The RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrr KKKKKKindergatsig CKKKKindergatsig CKKKKK 51Ane E.G5 rgoooooindergatsig CKKKKKindergatsig CKKKKKindergatsig CKKKKKindergatsig CKKKKKK o 51Ane E.G5 rg oooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgoooo o51Ane E.G5 rg ooooo oooooooooooooGG The RadinTagc rrrrThe RadinTagc rrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTag crrrr rThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrr indergatsig C KKKKindergatsig CKKKKKindergatsig CKKKKK 51Ane E.G5 rgKKKKKindergatsig CKKKKK 51Ane E.G5 rgoooooindergatsig CKKKKK GGGGGGGG51Ane E.G5 rgoooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 r gooooo sss 51Ane E.G5 rgoooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo oooooooooooooGG The RadinTagcrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrr The RadinTag c rrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrr KKKKKK indergatsig C KKKKindergatsig CKKKKK The RadinTagcKKKKKindergatsig CKKKKKindergatsig CKKKKKindergatsig CKKKK K The RadinTagcKKKKKK indergatsig C oooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo oooooooooooooGG The RadinTagcrrrr The RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrrThe RadinTagcrrrrr indergatsig Crrrrrr sssss indergatsig C KKKKindergatsig CKKKKKindergatsig C KKKKKindergatsig C KKKKK indergatsig CKKKKK indergatsig CKKKKKindergatsig CKKKKK GGGGGGGGGGG51Ane E.G5 rgoooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo 51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 rgooooo51Ane E.G5 r TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIP S TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIP S TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIP S TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIPS TEACHING TIP 518 The Reading Teacher Vol. 63, fo. 6 March 20b0 to use their brains, they were mabinf an inference. Presentinf the inference process in this manner al – lowed the children to worb with the text concretely and mabe the inference process itself more tanfible. Additionally, asbinf questions increases children’s ability and inclination to mabe inferences (Hansen, 1981). Young Students and Meaning Making What we have seen in Mrs. Hope’s classroom is that younf students are able to use schema, mabe con – nections, visualize, asb questions, and infer when in – teractinf with texts. These comprehension stratefies, althoufh typically associated with the instruction of older children, can—and do —worb in classrooms of younfer student s, a s the binderfar tner s in Mr s. Hope’s cla s sroom demonstrate. T he se younf stu – dents benefited from her explicit instruction of com – prehension stratefie s and were able to constr uct meaninfs and interpretations for texts. While it was quicbly befin to asb questions helpinf them both to interact with the text in meaninfful ways and to criti – cally examine the stor y. Infeffing and Using Ouf Bfains An inference is created at the inter section of our schema, the author’s words on the pafe, and our mind’s ability to merfe that information into a unique combination (Keene & Zimmermann, 1997). This is a stratefy of some complexity and required the chil – dren of Mrs. Hope’s class to utilize aspects of all the stratefies they had learned up until this point. Lobel’s (1979) Frog anf Toaf Are Frienfs and the stories in that series were a freat resource for Mrs. Hope when worbinf with inferrinf. She and the chil – dren would create anchor charts at the befinninf of the stor y with the questions they had (see Fifure 4). After the stor y was read, they would discus s these questions and answer whether the question was ex – plicitly answered in the text of the boob or if they needed to use their brains. Whenever they needed Figure 3 bxfert Readers Ask mQuestions for Owen & Mzee 51b Kindergartners Can Do It., Too! Comprehension Strategie.s for Early Reader.s Dube, N.K. (2001, September 22). Builfing comprehension through explicit teaching of comprehension strategies . Presentation to t he second annual MR A /CIER A Conference, Ea st L ansinf, Michifan. Dube, N.K., & Pearson, P.D. (2002). Effective practices for devel – opinf readinf comprehension. In A.E. Farstrup & S.J. Samuels ( Eds.), W hat research has to sa y about reafing inst r uction (3rd ed., pp. 205 –242). Newarb, DE: Inter national Readinf Association. Han s en, J. (1981). T he effect s of inference t r aininf and pr ac – tice on younf children’s comprehension. Reafing Research Quarterly , 16(3), 391– 417. doi:10.2307/747409 Hoyt, L. (2005). Spotlight on comprehension: Builfing a literacy of thoughtfulness . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Ke e ne, E .O., & Z i m me r ma n n, S . (19 97 ). M o s a i c o f t h o u gh t : Teaching comprehension in a reafer’s workshop . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. McCarrier, A., Fountas, I.C., & Pinnell, G.S. (1999). Interactive writ- ing: How language & literacy come together, K–2 . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Miller, D. (2002). Reafing with meaning: Teaching comprehension in the primar y grafes . Portland, ME: Stenhouse. RAND Readinf Study Group. (2002). Reafing for unferstanfing: Towarf an R& D program in reafing comprehension . Santa Monica, CA: RAND. Stahl, K.A.D. (2004). Proof, practice, and promise: Comprehension stratefy instruction in primar y frades. The Reafing Teacher, 57 (7), 598 – 609. not always evident if these interpretations were com – prehensive (i.e., inclusive of the entire text), all stu – dents within the classroom were able to enfafe with text to befin to nefotiate meaninf construction. By neces sit y, comprehension instr uction loob s different with younf children. It is more active and much more visible (i.e., throufh the use of hand sif – nals). However, their use of these stratefies functions in a manner that is ver y similar to that of older chil – dren. The result is that they are better able to under – stand what they are readinf. References Broob s, J.G., & Broob s, M.G. (19 93). In search of unfer s tanf- ing: The case for constructivist classrooms . Alexandr ia, VA: Association for Super vision and Curriculum Development. Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages . Cambridfe, MA: Har vard University Press. Bruner, J.S. (1983). Play, thoufht and lanfuafe. Peabofy Journal of Efucation , 60(3), 60 – 69. Cunninfham, A., & Shafour y, R. (2005). Starting with comprehen- sion: Reafing strategies for the youngest learners . Por tland, ME: Stenhouse. 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( 19 7 9 ). F r o g a n f To a f a r e f r i e n f s . N e w Yo r b : HarperCollins. Mozelle, S. (1995). Zach’s alligator . New Yorb: HarperCollins. Gregor y teaches at Boise State University, Ifaho, USA; e-mail agregor y@boisestate. efu. Cahill teaches at Boise State University; e-mail Mar [email protected]fu. Wells, C.G. (1985). L anguage, learning anf efucation: Selectef papers from the Bristol stufy, language at home anf at school . Philadelphia: NFER Nelson. Literature Cited Brincbloe, J. (1985). Fireflies . New Yorb: Aladdin. Hatboff, C., Hatboff, I., & Kahumbu, P. (2006). bwen anf Mzee: The stor y of a remarkable frienfship . New Yorb: Scholastic. Copyright of Reading Teacher is the property of International Reading Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
Hello, I need to write the author’s argument tomorrow at noon. I will provide the rubric, etc. Free Plagiarism No information from another article, only the one I am sending.
5 Points 4 points 3 Points 2 Points Critical Analysis of Articles The topic sentence is strong, detailed and focused. The summary is organized and includes important aspects of the research including the participants (who was involved), what was done (research methods), and the findings. The topic sentence is clear, but needs to be more focused. The summary is organized, but is missing some important aspects including the participants (who was involved), what was done (research methods), and the findings. The topic sentence is vague. It is difficult to make sense of what the article is about The summary lacks organization and important aspects including the participants (who was involved), what was done (research methods), and the findings. The topic sentence is not clear. The summary is short and vague. It lacks important details which makes it difficult to understand. Writing Conventions APA formatting is used correctly throughout the draft. Uses consistent agreement between parts of speech. No errors in mechanics, capitalization, punctuation, or spelling. APA formatting is used throughout the draft. There are occasional errors. Use the website to guide your revisions, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Occasional errors in agreement between parts of speech. Some errors in mechanics, capitalization, punctuation, or spelling. APA formatting is not used. Use the website to guide your revisions, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Inconsistent agreement between parts of speech. Several errors in mechanics, capitalization, punctuation, or spelling. APA formatting is not used. Use the website to guide your revisions, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Parts of speech show lack of agreement. Frequent errors in mechanics, capitalization, punctuation, or spelling.

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