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The sources you identified through the Annotated Bibliography in Week Two will be used to build the literature review this week and to further support the Final Project in Week Six. The sources should support the following: NEED BY MONDAY 07/26/2021 BY 5PM MOUNTAIN

  • Provide a concise description of how each source contributes to the Wayne Williams/Atlanta Child Murders and current evidentiary issues.
  • Evaluate the scientific techniques used in processing evidence in the Wayne Williams/Atlanta Child Murder case.
  • Examine the ethical issues and articulates significance on the admissibility of forensic evidence, particularly trace evidence in the Wayne Williams/Atlanta Child Murders case in subsequent legal proceedings.
  • Compare and contrast evidence collection and processing methods at the time of the Wayne Williams/Atlanta Child Murders and current collection and processing methods.

The Literature Review must include the following elements

  • Use the 10 sources identified in your Annotated Bibliography from Week Two, in addition to the course text and other required sources. WILL PROVIDE ATTACHED SOURCES
  • Due to the nature of the assignments, your original search may include reliable sources, including reliable media, to enable you to identify areas for further scholarly research. For example, numerous media publications, including The New York Times and The Christian Science Monitor, reported that Texas mother Andrea Yates was reportedly suffering from postpartum psychosis when she drowned her five children. The scholarly source would then focus on the postpartum psychosis diagnosis.

The Literature Review

  • Must be a minimum of 1500 words not including title and references pages and formatted according to APA style.
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
  • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must use the 10 sources identified in your Annotated Bibliography in addition to the course text and other required readings
  • Must document all sources in APA style 
  • Must have in-text citations.
  • Must have a separate reference page
  • Turn IT In score of less than 8%

2

The Wayne Williams Case: An Annotated Bibliography

Rowson, K. (2015). Atlanta child murders: Wayne Williams hopes for appeal. USA TODAY. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/local/2015/04/30/wayne-williams-hair-evidence-fbi/26678019/

In this article, Rowson (2015) writes about Wayne Bertram Williams’s chances of appeal. However, what stands in the way of Wayne William’s successful appeal is the prosecution’s belief that Williams is responsible for the killing of more than two dozen children in Atlanta. The author mentions Wayne Williams’s and his defense insistence on the poor reliability of the fiber and hair analysis that ties him to the famous Atlanta child murders. Rowson also mentions the DOJ’s (Department of Justice) later written to William’s Lawyer Lynn Whatley that addressed the unprofessional standards of one or more of the 13 examiners involved in the prosecution of his client. Rowson’s work will be one of the most useful to the research as it touches on the heavy debate involving the reliability of hair and fiber analysis to criminals and the unprofessionalism of the forensic processes the prosecution used to tie Williams to the children murders.

Nickell, J. (2011). The Atlanta Child Murders: Evidence vs. psychics. CSICOP. https://www.csicop.org/sb/show/the_atlanta_child_murders_evidence_vs._psychics

Nickell’s article presents major points that will be of interest to the debate in regards to Wayne Williams’s case. The author mentions the trace evidence used in the prosecution of Wayne Williams, these were in form of carpet fibers and dog hairs found in the two victims’ bodies as well as Wayne’s house. Apart from the much-mentioned fiber evidence, a key compelling point about the author’s work is that he also mentions the hair DNA analysis that made Wayne William complicit in the two murders. The research also mentioned the complaints of Wayne’s defense team about the prosecutor withholding evidence in the case. This presents an interesting ethical consideration regarding the case. The major limitation of the article is that most of its references date back to much older years and so it fails to provide new insights related to the case. 

FBI. (2014). Serial killers’ part 5: Wayne Williams and the Atlanta child murders. FBI NEWS. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/-serial-killers-part-5-wayne-williams-and-the-atlanta-child-murders

The FBI article majorly touches on the methods the detectives used to link Wayne Williams to the killings of two men. The article mentions the hair and fiber trace evidence that implicated Wayne Williams in the murder of the two men. The article also introduces us to the polygraph tests that also tied Wayne Williams to the murder. The use of lie detectors has been contentious due to its legality debate hence bringing ethical concerns about its applicability to the case. The article makes an important claim of the child murders stopping when Wayne Williams was jailed. In regards to the research, this claim might strengthen the argument that it was indeed Wayne Williams that also murdered the children hence challenging the debate about the imperfectness of hair and fiber analysis in criminal investigations.

A&E Television Networks (2015). Wayne Williams biography. https://www.biography.com/people/wayne-williams-14424594

The biography website article presents the evidence that was used to implicate Wayne Williams. This evidence that made him guilty for the killing of two men was the physical evidence that matched the fibers found on the victims and Williams’s possessions. Another vital piece of evidence that proved Williams guilty for two men that were murdered was DNA analysis. The article mentions that DNA sequencing from the hairs revealed to match Wayne William’s hair. This DNA proof is vital for the research as it was found that the hairs had a 98% match to the accused, Wayne Williams. The article mentions that the jury felt that this revelation was accurate because DNA tests are accurate to 95%. The accuracy of DNA tests makes a compelling case for Wayne’s trial and this research.

Deadman, H. A. (1984). Fiber evidence and the Wayne Williams trial: Conclusion. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin53(5), 10-19.

This article by Deadman sheds light on how the FBI use of the fiber analysis procedure implicated Wayne Williams in the murders of two men and the children. Deadman writes about how Georgia’s crime laboratory unit traced the fibers found on the victim’s body to Wayne’s house and to the manufacturer where it was made. The article mentions how the investigators came to the conclusion that found only one person in Atlanta having the carpet and that person was none other than Wayne. The advantage of this article stems from its authoritative source, the FBI. The article finds the fiber analysis evidence of this case overwhelming and hence provides room for the research to heavily consider a position supporting the reliability of fiber analysis in criminal investigations. 

Giannelli, P. C. (1991). Criminal discovery, scientific evidence, and DNA. Vanderbilt Law Review44, 791.

In this research article, Giannelli reviews the evidence during the trial of Wayne Williams. First, the author mentions how fiber analysis was conducted. Giannelli writes that the fiber analysis employed a microspectrophotometer which was an instrument used to measure the color of the fiber. This information is useful to the research as it shows us how fiber analysis of this case was carried out. Also, Gianneli mentions how the defense was denied to access the evidence of the fiber analysis chromatograph. The author mentions that forensic graphs should have been accessible to all parties as one’s expert opinion should be subjected to another one regarding the interpretation of the graphs. This claim presents an interesting angle on some of the legal issues that can be addressed in the research.  

Willis, K., & Cooper, T. (2019). GDPR Support. https://www.ajc.com/news/crime–law/wayne-williams-charged-nathaniel-cater-slaying/l11zKO68bhhQsA9ce1C6UJ/

Willis and Cooper’s article brings up key information with first being about how fiber analysis led to Wayne Williams’s arrest. Second, Willis and Cooper also touched on how the investigators were alleged to be at odds over the sufficiency of the evidence needed to prosecute Wayne Williams. The authors write that the FBI was particularly keen to go ahead with the prosecution but Slaton (the district attorney then) maintained that more evidence was needed. The sufficiency of the evidence to arrest and prosecute Wayne Williams brings up an interesting legal concern over whether the fiber evidence was enough to prosecute Wayne Williams. The research finds the two author’s articles helpful in the argument of the fiber analysis reliability in courts. 

Lee, H. C. (1998). Applying microscopy in forensic science. Microscopy and Microanalysis4(S2), 490-491.

In this article, Lee reviews how microscopy is vital in criminal science. The author links the use of microscopy to the arrest of Wayne Williams in Atlanta. In this article, Lee mentions how fiber (a form of trace evidence) was microscopically analyzed and later lead to the conviction of Wayne Williams. The authors write about how microscopic evaluation and comparison of the fiber samples from the victim’s body and the accused house led to Wayne’s arrest. The author credits Wayne’s arrest to the application of microscopy in forensic science. Lee cites that microscopy aids examiners in identifying, comparing, and examining evidence. A major limitation is that the author only talks about microscopy and microscopic analysis and does not mention other scientific methods of forensics. Lee’s work will be instrumental in revealing the details of the scientific method of microscopy used in the prosecution of Wayne Williams.

Imwinkelried, E. J. (1983). The Standard for Admitting Scientific Evidence a Critique from the Perspective of Juror Psychology. Military Law Review100, 99.

In this article, the author talks about how courts and prosecutors across the country are finding scientific evidence to be the back-born of circumstantial evidence cases. In respect to the Wayne Williams trial, the article reveals how there is a strong belief in science when it comes to the conviction of criminals in court. The article cites the growth of science as the leading factor to the admission of scientific evidence in prosecution. However, the author also points out the faults that have been observed throughout history regarding the validity of scientific evidence in court. The article also points out of some courts relaxing scientific admission due to those techniques not being fault-proof and also because of concerns such as the juror’s inability to analyze scientific evidence. This article is important in the research as it questions the ethical and legal concerns behind the admission of scientific evidence in the courtroom. 

Eldridge, S. (2012). Trace evidence: Dead people do tell tales. Enslow Publishing, LLC.

Eldridge’s publication talks about trace evidence and the forensic techniques investigators use to nab criminals. In his work, Eldridge talks about human hairs, fibers, and dogs’ hair all linked to Wayne William being instrumental in his arrest and prosecution. Eldridge mentions scientific techniques such as DNA analysis, fiber and hair analysis, chemical analysis as the methods that detectives used to link Williams to the murders of the two men and the more than twenty children in Atlanta. For instance, through chemical analysis of the fiber colors, the detectives were able to compare the fibers collected at the crime scene and those at Wayne’s home. Eldridge’s work is key to the research as it opens us about the forensic techniques employed in linking trace evidence to crime suspects.

References

Rowson, K. (2015). Atlanta child murders: Wayne Williams hopes for appeal. USA TODAY. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/local/2015/04/30/wayne-williams-hair-evidence-fbi/26678019/

Eldridge, S. (2012). Trace Evidence: Dead People Do Tell Tales. Enslow Publishing, LLC.

Imwinkelried, E. J. (1983). The Standard for Admitting Scientific Evidence a Critique from the Perspective of Juror Psychology. Military Law Review100, 99.

Lee, H. C. (1998). Applying microscopy in forensic science. Microscopy and Microanalysis4(S2), 490-491.

Willis, K., & Cooper, T. (2019). GDPR Support. https://www.ajc.com/news/crime–law/wayne-williams-charged-nathaniel-cater-slaying/l11zKO68bhhQsA9ce1C6UJ/

Giannelli, P. C. (1991). Criminal discovery, scientific evidence, and DNA. Vanderbilt Law Review44, 791.

Deadman, H. A. (1984). Fiber evidence and the Wayne Williams trial: Conclusion. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin53(5), 10-19.

A&E Television Networks (2015). Wayne Williams biography. https://www.biography.com/people/wayne-williams-14424594

FBI, (2014). Serial killers’ part 5: Wayne Williams and the Atlanta child murders. FBI NEWS. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/-serial-killers-part-5-wayne-williams-and-the-atlanta-child-murders

Nickell, J. (2011). The Atlanta child murders: Evidence vs. psychics. CSICOP. https://www.csicop.org/sb/show/the_atlanta_child_murders_evidence_vs._psychics

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