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 Create a PowerPoint presentation with a minimum of 15 slides and a maximum of 20 slides excluding references. APA 7th edition format with citations. Prepare a power-point presentation selecting one topic from the article review for older adults. The presentation will be 15 – 20 minutes. The presentation will be graded on (a) content, (b) presentation, and (c) application of the nursing process. The presentation must include the following: o Disease title with your name o Disease Definition o Disease Pathology o Disease Etiology/Cause o Risk Factors o Signs & Symptoms- minimum of four characteristic signs & symptoms o Diagnostic Test-Identify normal values, functions, diagnostic laboratory findings o Medical Treatment Regimen o Describe Nursing assessment parameters for physical and/or clinical assessment especially for the older adult o Apply and describe each component of the Nursing Process (ADPIE).  List three Nursing Diagnoses  Identify one Nursing Diagnosis with one short & long-term goal, nine nursing interventions (3 assess/monitor, 3 implementations, and 3 teaching/discharge) • Include at least three (3) reference citations from Nursing Sources. Use accurate information from at least 2 journal articles less than 5 years old. Textbook information may also be used in the presentation but does not count as a reference. The student will use the nursing process to: a) Assessment: Explain the pathophysiology, identify contributing risk factors, and symptomatology. b) Diagnosis: Identify the problems list associated with older adults secondary to the disease process c) Planning: List the expectant outcomes for the older adult due to the disease process d) Implementation: Describe the treatment regimen for the disease process, medication management, nursing interventions associated with the plan of care, and setting of care for the older adult. 

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Part 1

The article “Age-Related Changes in Instrumental and Basic Activities of Daily Living Impairment in Older Adults with Very Mild Alzheimer’s Disease” by Tabira et al. (2020) focuses on age-related changes linked to mild Alzheimer’s disease within the aging population. The authors acknowledge that age-related changes in patients with mild Alzheimer’s have been rarely explored. Thus it clarifies the characteristics linked to Alzheimer’s disease cognitive impairment and compares how these impairments differ from older adults without the disease. To achieve this, the paper undertook a study whereby 107 older adults with mild Alzheimer’s disease were first-time patients at the Kumamoto University Hospital dementia clinic. The control group encompassed 682 older adults living within that community. The results showed impairments in managing finances, medication, shopping, and dressing. Additionally, fewer individuals with this condition could conduct these activities independently. The article’s main conclusion was that patients who have very mild Alzheimer’s disease depict considerably decreased activities of daily living independence from early old age.

Tabira et al. (2020) acknowledged that aging is often linked to decreased independence among individuals; hence, they often require help with instrumentals and basic activities of daily living. These include feeding, bathing, and others they would have done better. However, adults with mild Alzheimer’s disease require more care because Alzheimer’s disease is known to interfere with the psychological well-being of individuals. This condition results in psychological function impairment, a predictive element for dementia. Patients with this condition show the most significant impairment in minor activities of daily living, including using transport means, shopping, and handling finances and medicines.

This article can be applauded for creating insight into how age-related impairments are worsened by conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, whether mild or severe. Normally aging comes with significant impairments because as people age, they become more dependent even on simple tasks because of their frailty. However, illnesses can worsen this situation, thus requiring caregivers to attend to the needs of the older adult population. The control group was an excellent way to prove the difference between normal older adults and those affected by very mild Alzheimer’s disease. The control group is considered equally important to the experiment group because, without it, there will be no experiment (Curtis et al., 2018). Without the control group, the authors would not confidently determine the changes that occur in older adults with the condition and those without it. This was a critical procedure to validate the findings and substantiate their claims.

Additionally, as with any research, Tabira et al. (2020) outlined their methods to validate that older adults with very mild Alzheimer’s disease require more assistance with activities than normal older adults. The methodology gives legitimacy and offers scientifically sound findings. Additionally, it helps maintain the researchers on track, making their process seamless and 4effecrively manageable. The methodology has allowed the authors to uncover new information that requires more attention regarding age-related changes among older adults. Furthermore, the article encompasses applicability since the results and findings can help the medical field move forward toward caring for older adults. The lack of attention shows that older adults with very mild Alzheimer’s disease had otherwise been overlooked when it comes to the degree of help they need to carry out their activities of daily living. Still, now their needs can be met better.

Overall, older adults continue to go through age-related changes as they grow older. They go through psychological changes that affect their ability to perform these activities. The article considers how very mild Alzheimer’s disease can deepen these needs because of its impact on individuals’ cognitive ability. It proves, through research on older adults with this condition, that they require more help due to the psychological impact of Alzheimer’s on their independence to conduct activities of daily living.

Part 2

Depression

Although feeling depressed is an everyday part of life, it is not normal for aging. According to studies, most older adults are satisfied with their lives despite facing more illnesses and physical issues than the younger generation (Canuto et al., 2018). However, if individuals experience depression during their younger years, they might face it even in older age. Older adults might experience the major depressive disorder, which includes symptoms that interfere with their ability to perform their daily tasks. Another is medicine or substance-induced depressive disorder, associated with using substances such as pain medication or alcohol. Another one is a depressive disorder due to a medical condition that is linked to separate illnesses such as multiple sclerosis. Older adults experience changes related to their mood where they feel empty and feel worthless; they get fatigued, walk or move slowly, and have difficulty concentrating.

Delirium

As people grow older, they begin to experience changes related to delirium. Delirium encompasses a confused mental state that happens suddenly. An individual can change their mental status and suddenly start to act distracted and disoriented. This is common in older adults, especially those with dementia who need hospitalization. Over time, the aging starts to have brief confusion episodes and absentmindedness. They also have trouble thinking clearly and paying attention.

Dementia

Most older adults commonly experience age-related changes linked to dementia, especially because it is a common illness among the older adult population. These older populations start experiencing changes affecting their memory and social and thinking abilities. Older adults start to experience memory loss linked to their aging bodies, which could also be caused by dementia. Additionally, they experience changes in communication because they might find trouble finding words due to memory issues. Finally, they get challenges with spatial and visual abilities which can be characterized by their tendencies to get lost, such as when driving or walking.

Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s is a common illness affecting older adults. It affects their cognitive abilities as they grow older. Additionally, the illnesses can also be linked to some of the age-related changes that older adults face. As people age, they start experiencing greater memory loss than in their younger years. This is common, especially for older adults with Alzheimer’s, as they experience a more significant memory loss and face cognitive challenges in general (Lee et al., 2018). For example, they might wander and get lost, repeats questions, and experience personality and behavior changes, such as becoming more irritable and moodier.

Erectile dysfunction

Most older adults have reported erectile dysfunction as they grow older. They experience lower libido and a lower mood for engaging in sexual activity. This can be associated with various conditions linked to the elderly. For example, several heart conditions have been linked to erectile dysfunction among the elderly, including heart disease and atherosclerosis (Tanaka et al., 2020). Other illnesses prevalent among the old that can be linked to erectile dysfunction include diabetes, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease. Additionally, injury and trauma against the spinal cord and pelvic area can lead to nerve damage, thus resulting in erectile dysfunction. Even surgeries such as fistula surgery and orthopedic surgery also decrease sexual dysfunction.

Suicide

Suicide is among the leading causes of death in the United States, which affects individuals of all ages. Older adults are more suspectable to suicide for various reasons, including chronic illnesses and the passing of a loved one. Statistics show that although the older population makes up 12% of the population, they constitute approximately 18%. In 2020, for example, almost 46000 suicides occurred, whereby 9137 of these were older adults (National Council on Aging, 2021). The age-related symptoms contributing to suicide or suicide ideation among older adults include loneliness because they live alone or are homebound. Others include grief over a lost one, chronic pain, financial struggles, and cognitive impairment. Older adults start to avoid social activities, neglect themselves, including grooming and taking their meds, lack concern over their safety, and change or prepare their wills. Through these signs, an individual can recognize the risk of suicide and get help as soon as possible.

References

Canuto, A., Weber, K., Baertschi, M., Andreas, S., Volkert, J., Dehoust, M. C., … & Härter, M. (2018). Anxiety disorders in old age: psychiatric comorbidities, quality of life, and prevalence according to age, gender, and country.
The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(2), 174-185.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2017.08.015

Curtis, M. J., Alexander, S., Cirino, G., Docherty, J. R., George, C. H., Giembycz, M. A., … & Ahluwalia, A. (2018). Experimental design and analysis and their reporting II: Updated and simplified guidance for authors and peer reviewers.
British journal of pharmacology, 175(7), 987-993.
https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.14153

Lee, S. D., Ong, B., Pike, K. E., & Kinsella, G. J. (2018). Prospective memory and subjective memory decline: A neuropsychological indicator of memory difficulties in community-dwelling older people.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 40(2), 183-197.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2017.1326465

National Council on Aging. (2021). Suicide and Older Adults. Retrieved From:
https://ncoa.org/article/suicide-and-older-adults-what-you-should-know

Tabira, T., Hotta, M., Murata, M., Yoshiura, K., Han, G., Ishikawa, T., … & Ikeda, M. (2020). Age-related changes in instrumental and basic activities of daily living impairment in older adults with very mild Alzheimer’s disease.
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 10(1), 27-37.
https://doi.org/10.1159/000506281

Tanaka, Y., Bundy, J. D., Allen, N. B., Uddin, S. I., Feldman, D. I., Michos, E. D., … & Greenland, P. (2020). Association of erectile dysfunction with incident atrial fibrillation: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA).
The American journal of medicine, 133(5), 613-620.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2019.08.052

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