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 find, read and review two (2) “External Authoritative Sources” (defined below), discussing assault and battery in a medical setting. 


Provide a separate paragraph narrative for each of the two (2) required  “External Authoritative Sources

Each source shall be substantively cited in a narrative paragraph using proper APA style


As requested, below please find a sample of one of the two sources required for the Individual Authoritative Links Assignment. Students may not use this source in their submission or it will receive zero points.

TITLE: The Changed Environment: Pharmaceutical Companies, Medical Providers, and Gifts.

NARRATIVE #1: In ‘’Limiting the Influence of Pharmaceutical Industry Gifts on Physicians: Self-Regulation or Government Intervention?’’ (Grande, 2010), examines the public’s increasing interest in the influence pharmaceutical companies have on physicians through gifts and the efforts for regulation. Grande (2010), sheds light on the influence pharmaceutical gifts have on medical providers and how this scrutiny is questioning the objectivity and independence of physicians and the way they prescribe medication (para. 2). The pharmaceutical gifts that are potentially swaying physicians’ objectivity range from company-sponsored meals, drug samples, to other non “educational” gifts of less value (Grande, 2010, para. 5). Although some gifts might appear trivial, data suggests that even gifts that might not have much significance may create influence (Grande, 2010, para. 12). The public’s interest in the effect these gifts have on physicians was piqued from the realization that drugs that were heavily marketed were revealed to pose public health risks, the rising costs of pharmaceuticals was also a major factor (Grande, 2010, para. 2). Grande explains that efforts toward self-regulation have been made such as the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) issuing voluntary guidelines in 2002(Grande, 2010, para. 5). However, circumstances advise that depending on ethics guidelines to guide self-regulation have been slow to bring substantive change (Grande, 2010, para. 8). As for governmental intervention, Grande (2010), explains that governmental regulations will contain loopholes and the pharmaceutical industry will find ways to promote its products regardless of ethics (para. 26).


Grande, D. (2009). Limiting the Influence of Pharmaceutical Industry Gifts on Physicians: Self-Regulation or Government Intervention? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(1), 79–83.


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