Pasadena City College Social Cognitive Theory Discussion and Responses

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Developmental theorists claim that finding a partner is one of the things we focus most on during young adulthood. Today, research indicates that more and more individuals are turning to online dating in the search of love.

  • Do you feel this is an effective way to search for a companion? Why or why not?
  • Referencing the article, “Five Myths About Online Dating,” briefly address some of the issues that arise with the quest of finding a partner through the Internet.

Support your reasoning with information from the text, course materials, and the article.

1st Peer Discussion

Online dating has its pros and cons. With the rise of COVID, the lack of connection to society left many feeling empty. Dr. Fathi shares the experience of one of her clients that proved this to be true in the episode titled “Instagram.” Online dating is an easy way to feel connected to others and provides access to millions of other people you may have never come across. Introverted or shy/anxious individuals benefit significantly from online dating as they find it hard to meet potential partners in person (Santrock, p. 445). This way, they can speak to and become comfortable with others before they agree to meet in person. 

Online dating can take away from the interpersonal connection found in an in-person first impression and the spark of a face-to-face conversation. Erikson defines intimacy as finding oneself while losing oneself in another person (p.446). I think young adults seeking love should try it in person, in specific social settings where similar interests and values are seen right away—for example, meeting someone at a concert of their favorite artist. 

Online dating can be a form of instant gratification. If one person doesn’t take an interest in you, another person will. I believe that although dating apps were made for accessibility, it can delay the time it takes for someone to finally open up and become fully intimate with another person. 

I agree that hook-up culture is evident in the online-dating realm, which is a “misconception” co-founder of OkCupid addresses in his article “Five Myths About Online Dating.”

In my experience, body language makes it easier to detect someone’s intentions in face-to-face interactions. It’s harder to judge that aspect through digital communication. People can be deceiving and tell you what you want to hear based on the characteristics you share about yourself on your profile. 

While he made seemingly valid counterarguments, some questions regarding the reliability of his research arose in my reading. For example, he states that out of the one-third of recent marriages that started online, compared to the other proportion that met elsewhere, research shows that the couples that met online tend to be happier. However, he has no sources for this claim, making it void. 


Fathi, N. (Host). (2021, April 27). Instagram. [Audio podcast episode]. In Stories on the couch.

Rudder, C. (2015). Five myths about online dating. The Washington Post.…

Santrock, J. W. (2021). Life-span development. McGraw-Hill Education.

2nd Peer Discussion

Many people can benefit from online dating, especially because this generation is introverted and strive on meeting online first and then in person once they feel comfortable enough. In addition, searching for a companion online could be effective such as taking your time to get to know one another through phone calls and Facetime, however, according to the five myths, anyone could lie about who they are, their age, or even use someone else’s pictures. While this could be false for many, there are several people who still try to trick or “catfish” people. Furthermore, online dating could be dangerous because people could easily hide who they are. Oftentimes, our gut will warn us about possible danger but many people let their feelings get in the way of that–leading to bad outcomes.

All in all, people should try online dating if it suits them. It doesn’t hurt getting your feet wet, but everyone should be aware of their gut feeling and educate themselves on potential red flags the person might present.

Santrock. J. (2016). McGraw-Hill. Life-Span Development. Eighteenth Edition. 

Discussion Prompt 2 

The purpose of this assignment is to draft and submit a complete, organized, detailed outline of your research paper in APA format, with sources cited and referenced accurately. 

1st Peer Discussion


Question: What are the emotional issues causing adolescence to bully, and what are the effects post-adolescence?

I. Introduction

A. When you were in your adolescents at some point, you either remember being bullied yourself, remember other children getting bullied, or were the bully.

B. Im sure you would want to know why this happens and what emotional effects it has on the bully.

C. There are plenty of reasons adolescents bully and the effects of post adolescents on the victim.

D. Causes can be insecure attachment, parenting styles, and sociocultural perspectives.

II. Body Paragraph 1

A. Topic Sentence: There are plenty of reasons why adolescents bully, and here are some factors that contribute to it.

B. Developmental psychopathology theory

1. DPT views aggressive behavior as a maladaptive environmental stressor that leads to developmental dysfunction.

2. Insecure attachment is a factor in bullying perpetration.

a) Insecure attachment is the initial trigger or motivation for aggression.

b) I believe that insecure attachment is caused by the parents who didn’t allow their children to show emotions, so now they struggle with making emotional connections with other children.

C. Social Cognitive theory

1. Social cognitive theory impacts behavior decisions.

a) Three cognitive elements are related to aggression.

(1) Self-efficacy: confidence in the ability to enact aggression

(2) Outcome expectations: beliefs that aggression will lead to positive outcomes.

(3) Outcome values: valuing outcomes that could be attained using aggression

b) Proactive aggression is children who perpetrate aggression as a strategy to achieve social goals of dominance and resource control.

(1) Adolescents know that they will get what they want if they act aggressively.

III. Body Paragraph 2

A. Topic Sentence: Parenting styles are the leading factors that cause adolescents to bully.

B. “The family is the first natural community and social framework for the individual and has an important role in the development of personality and behavior” (Tatiani, 2021)

1. As a child, you learn from your parents and pick up the habits they may have.

C. A meta-analysis of 70 studies and cross-sectional studies confirm the general finding that the involvement of students as bullies and being victimized in school bullying is associated with parenting and the characteristics of rejection and lack of warmth.

1. When children bully, they want some attention, so if they don’t get it from their parents, they tend to search elsewhere.

D. Authoritarian parenting style

1. Uses methods of discipline that contribute to the vulnerability of personality and aggressive/intimidating behavior. Parents in this type of parenting style will result in using violence as a form of correcting their behavior.

2. Neglectful parenting

a) Linked to lack of parental supervision, parental neglect, and hostility.

3. Socioeconomic circumstances and the low education level of parents influence bullying behavior.

a) Data shows that fathers who suffer from unemployment bring family stress, causing parental support and parental interaction to be reduced.

b) In 40 countries, the most victimized adolescents came from families with lower socioeconomic levels.

IV. Body Paragraph 3

A. Topic Sentence: School bullying and the link to Vygotsky’s theory.

B. Sociocultural perspectives may explore how the peer group learns and negotiates their norms, practices, and rituals.

1. This causes bullying to be more present where aggression, dominance, and negative forms of interaction are normalized.

C. Characteristics of a child are more likely linked to bullies.

1. There are also reported links with emotional intelligence, with adolescents who bully others scoring lower on the ability to understand the emotions of others. (Maunder, 2018)

2. There are different settings where a sociocultural framework can be interpreted differently because it is different settings.

3. Children are greatly influenced by what their peers do, which can also lead them to bully to fit in with their peers.

a) When you are in your adolescence, all you want is to be accepted just to fit in; if you see them bullying other people, you will be pressured to do the same thing.

V. Body Paragraph 4

A. Topic Sentence: Cyberbullying has long terms effects on adults who have been bullied, causing them to stutter.

1. “This assertion may lead to the assumption that those who stutter are more likely to get bullied, and therefore obtain lasting effects on the already naturally occurring negative effects of being a person who stutters” (Nicolai et al., 2018).

2. Adolescents who experience stuttering and cyberbullying will have significantly higher depression, anxiety, and stress scores as measured by the DASS compared to the other 3 groups. This means that on top of already having a stuttering problem, they have to deal with these extra struggles post-adolescence.

VI. Conclusion

A. In conclusion, many factors contribute to adolescent bullying.

B. It is essential to know what the causes are so that we can help future adolescence prevent bullying instead of ignoring the situation.

C. “Teachers can also enable bullying through poor supervision practices and ineffective responses to bullying [36]. Schools can contribute to bullying by providing insufficient supervision, physical settings that facilitate bullying, or policies that discourage effective responses when bullying occurs” (Thomas et all, 2017).

1. If we continue to ignore it the problem will not go away.

D. Causes can be insecure attachment, parenting styles, and sociocultural perspectives.

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