Policy proposal presentation

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Record a slide presentation with audio voiceover, supported by 8-12-slides, for one of the stakeholder groups identified in your Assessment 2 Policy Proposal, which addresses current performance shortfalls, the reasons why new policy and practice guidelines are needed to eliminate those shortfalls, and how the group’s work will benefit from the changes.


It is important that health care leaders be able to clearly articulate policy positions and recommendations and garner buy-in and support from stakeholder groups for policy and practice changes in their organizations. Unfortunately, effective communication is often lacking. Consequently, it is important for health care leaders, when leading change, to ensure that clear and open communication is ongoing and informative.

An important aspect of change leadership is the ability to address diverse groups of stakeholders and create buy-in and support for your ideas and proposals for change. This assessment provides you with an opportunity to demonstrate and hone these skills.

Record a slide presentation, with audio voiceover, for one of the stakeholder groups you identified in your Assessment 2 Policy Proposal. Inform the group of current performance shortfalls, introduce the proposed policy, explain why the policy is needed, and present policy-driven practice guidelines to resolve the performance issue. You must also obtain buy-in from the group by explaining the positive effects of the policy and practice guidelines on their work.

Note: Remember that you can submit all, or a portion of, your draft presentation to Smarthinking for feedback, before you submit the final version for this assessment. If you plan on using this free service, be mindful of the turnaround time of 24–48 hours for receiving feedback.


The presentation requirements outlined below correspond to the scoring guide criteria, so be sure to address each main point. Read the performance-level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed. In addition, be sure to note the requirements for presentation format and length and for supporting evidence.

  • Summarize your proposed organizational policy and practice guidelines. 
    • Identify applicable local, state, or federal health care policy or law that prescribes relevant performance benchmarks that your policy proposal addresses.
    • Keep your audience in mind when creating this summary.
  • Interpret, for stakeholders, the relevant benchmark metrics that illustrate the need for the proposed policy and practice guidelines. 
    • Make sure this is a brief review of the evaluation you completed in your Assessment 1 Dashboard Benchmark Evaluation.
    • Make sure you are interpreting the dashboard metrics in a way that is understandable and meaningful to the stakeholders to whom you are presenting.
  • Explain how your proposed policy and practice guidelines will affect how the stakeholder group does its work. 
    • How might your proposal alter certain tasks or how the stakeholder group performs them?
    • How might your proposal affect the stakeholder group’s workload?
    • How might your proposal alter the responsibilities of the stakeholder group?
    • How might your proposal improve working conditions for the stakeholder group?
  • Explain how your proposed policy and practice guidelines will improve quality and outcomes for the stakeholder group. 
    • How are your proposed changes going to improve the quality of the stakeholder group’s work?
    • How will these improvements enable the stakeholder group to be more successful?
    • What evidence supports your conclusions or presents alternative perspectives?
  • Present strategies for collaborating with the stakeholder group to implement your proposed policy and practice guidelines. 
    • What role will the stakeholder group play in implementing your proposal?
    • Why is the stakeholder group and their collaboration important for successful implementation?
  • Deliver a persuasive, coherent, and effective audiovisual presentation. 
    • Address the anticipated needs and concerns of your audience.
    • Stay focused on key policy provisions and the impact of practice guidelines on the group.
    • Adhere to presentation best practices.
    • Proofread your presentation slides to minimize errors that could distract the audience and make it more difficult for them to focus on the substance of your proposed policy and practice guidelines.

Example Assessment: You may use the following to give you an idea of what a Proficient or higher rating on the scoring guide would look like:

Presentation Format and Length

You may use Microsoft PowerPoint or other suitable presentation software to create your slides. If you elect to use an application other than PowerPoint, check with your faculty to avoid potential file compatibility issues.

If using PowerPoint to create your presentation slides, you may use the following presentation as a template.

Be sure your slide deck includes the following slides:

  • Title slide. 
    • Presentation title.
    • Your name.
    • Date.
    • Course number and title.
  • References (at the end of your presentation). Apply current APA formatting to all citations and references.

Your slide deck should consist of 8–12 slides, not including a title and references slide.

Note: If you have technical difficulties in recording your audio, you may, in place of the audio, provide a complete script of what you intended to say in the notes section of each slide. If you require the use of assistive technology or alternative communication methods to participate in this activity, please contact [email protected]to request accommodations.

Supporting Evidence

Cite 3–5 sources of scholarly, professional, or policy evidence to support your analysis and recommendations.






JANUARY 1, 2020

Hello, and welcome to today’s presentation on the policy proposal for managing
medication errors. This presentation has been designed to give you, the stakeholders,
all the relevant information about the need for an institutional policy that will reduce
medication errors at Mercy Medical Center. We will also discuss the scope of the
proposal, strategies to resolve medication errors, and stakeholder involvement in the
implementation of these strategies.



■ Policy on Managing Medication Errors

■ Need for a Policy

■ Scope of the Policy

■ Strategies to Resolve Medication Errors

■ Role of the Hospital Staff

■ Positive Impact on Working Conditions

■ Issues in the Application of Strategies

■ Alternative Perspectives on Mitigating
Medication Errors

■ Stakeholder Participation

We will begin by understanding the features of the policy on managing medication
errors. We will examine the need for a policy and determine its scope. The policy will
revolve around two strategies to resolve medication errors. We will identify the role
of members of the hospital staff who will implement the strategies. We will examine
the potential positive impact of the strategies on the working conditions of the staff.
We will also delve into possible barriers that could arise during the application of the
strategies. Next, we will discuss alternative perspectives for resolving medication
errors. Finally, we will look at the stakeholder involvement in implementing these


Policy on

■ Analyzing medication error trends and
addressing shortfalls regularly

■ Establishing automated dispensing
cabinets to manage medication

■ Training hospital staff and pharmacists on
medication error prevention

■ Educating patients on potential areas of
medication error

The policy guidelines presented here comply with state and federal laws. Centers for
Medicare & Medicaid Services mandates the implementation of evidence-based
initiatives to improve the quality of health care by analyzing the condition of patient
safety and managing medication errors (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services,
2017). Mercy Medical Center intends to regularly conduct a thorough analysis of
medication error trends as a quality measure and to identify gaps in existing medical
processes. To comply with the Code of Maryland Regulations, the hospital will
conduct training sessions to educate and train health care professionals such as
doctors, nurses, and hospital support staff to manage and minimize medication
errors. An internal staff committee will be formed to regularly review patient safety
standards. The hospital will also encourage timely and accurate reporting of
medication errors, which would help in trend analysis of these errors (Code of
Maryland Regulations, n.d.). As per the new policy, the hospital will install automated
dispensing cabinets to efficiently manage medication and to reduce dispensing-
related medication errors (Darwesh et al., 2017).


Need for a

■ Increase in medication errors from 2015 to
2016 by 50%

■ Medication errors can increase the cost of
health care

■ Medication errors can cause significant
harm to patients

■ Managing medication errors is essential for
quality improvement

Medication errors can endanger patient safety and public health. Medication errors
can cause significant harm to patients and endanger their lives. From 2015 to 2016,
Mercy Medical Center has seen a 50% increase in medication errors in its medical and
surgery units. Medication error incidents need additional care interventions and
resources, which could lead to an increase in expense for medical practitioners and a
decrease in the efficiency of health care services. Medication error incidents could
also negatively affect the hospital’s reputation. Managing medication errors ensures
patient safety and reduces potential risks to a patient’s life, thereby reflecting high-
quality patient care (Kavanagh, 2017).


Scope of
the Policy

The policy is applicable to:

Nursing and medical staff

Emergency and allied care practitioners

Pharmacists and pharmacy staff

Patients and family members

Board members

It is necessary to identify the group of stakeholders in order to analyze and
understand their expectations and interests. The policy is applicable to medical and
nursing staff, emergency care staff, and pharmacists and pharmacy staff (Kavanagh,
2017; Ferencz, 2014) because they prescribe, administer, and dispense medication. It
caters to patients and their family members by conducting training programs to
increase their awareness of medication errors. The policy is also applicable to the
board members of the hospital. Their involvement in financial decisions and role
allocation is important when promoting safe and quality health care (Parand et al.,


to Resolve
Errors (1)

Medication error analysis

■ Uses failure mode and effects analysis

■ Evaluates potential vulnerabilities in
medical processes

■ Identifies actions that could reduce
potential errors

■ Mitigates the risk and impact of repeated

Medication errors can pose serious risks to patient safety; however, learning from
these errors can help improve care interventions and reduce recurrences. Each error
reported is an opportunity for practitioners to develop countermeasures or to avoid
the repetition of errors as well as mitigate the impact of errors. Under the failure
mode and effects analysis technique defined by Weant et al. (2014), a
multidisciplinary committee commissioned by Mercy Medical Center can review
medication delivery and administration processes vulnerable to errors, the steps in
each process, possible failures, reasons for failures, and possible impact (Institute for
Healthcare Improvement, n.d.). This committee can observe shortfalls and organize
errors as per the urgency. Accordingly, the committee can recommend actions to
reduce the possible errors in the medication process. The analysis will end with an
evaluation of the prescribed actions for improvement (Centers for Medicare &
Medicaid Services, n.d.).


to Resolve
Errors (2)

Automated dispensing cabinets

■ Store, dispense, and electronically track

■ Assist the medical center in profiling

■ Reduce the time taken to retrieve

■ Track inventory on a real-time basis

Nursing staff, who are usually preoccupied with heavy workloads, will benefit greatly
from the automated dispensing cabinets. Automated dispensing cabinets facilitate
the safe delivery of care and reduce retrieval times for medication (Rochais et al.,


Role of the

■ Identify the right workflow

■ Maintain optimum inventory

■ Establish procedures for accurate
withdrawal of medication

■ Establish guidelines for reporting errors

■ Conduct training

The staff of Mercy Medical Center will play an important role in the implementation
of the new policy. The Chief of Medicine, along with the board members, will have to
identify the right workflow and establish a reporting hierarchy. This will help staff
members identify the contact persons to whom they must report an error. The
nursing staff will be responsible for a double-check mechanism to restock medication.
This will ensure efficient inventory management, especially when hospitalists use the
automated dispensing cabinets. The Chief of Medicine, along with other department
heads, will be responsible for establishing an accurate withdrawal procedure to
mitigate erroneous administration of drugs. A quality committee comprising key
administrative personnel, nursing staff, and doctors will establish the guidelines and
protocols for reporting errors. These guidelines will also help increase staff awareness
of the different degrees of medication errors and their consequences.


Impact on

■ Improvement in the safety of medication

■ Mitigation of future errors

■ Optimum stock of medication

■ Reduced reliance on verbal orders

The new policy on the management of medication error will, in a pervasive manner,
improve the safety of the medication system. The use of automated dispensing
cabinets will reduce the scope of mismanagement in the prescription and
administration of drugs. Analysis of medication errors will help identify the
bottlenecks in the medication administration and dispensing procedures, which will
help avoid errors in future (Weant et al, 2014). Automated dispensing cabinets help in
managing the inventory of drugs efficiently and will ensure that there is always an
optimum stock of medicines for corresponding patient profiles (Rochais, et al, 2014).
A standardized operating procedure will reduce the need for staff to rely on verbal


Issues in

■ Irregular or inaccurate documentation

■ Incorrect restocking of automated
dispensing cabinets

■ Inefficient functioning of dispensing

■ Complexities in point-of-care drug order

A few precautions need to be taken in order to successfully implement the strategies.
Medication errors must be documented regularly to perform effective analysis.
Additionally, verbal reporting of errors must be discouraged because such reporting
can result in incorrect documentation or underreporting of errors; dissuading such
reporting increases the scope for improvement of patient safety (Elden & Ismail,
2016). A conducive environment is essential for the implementation of these
strategies. Dependence on a one-size-fits-all dispenser may lead to the system
operating below expectations. Point-of-care drug entries made by prescribers can
become complicated because of interface-based complexities. A prescriber must
choose from a large variety of drugs, brands, and dosages for drug profiling, which is
a tedious task (Ferencz, 2014).


on Mitigating

■ Using robotic systems for medication

■ Linking supply ordering with medication
distribution system

A novel alternative to mitigating medication errors is to use robotic systems for
medication distribution. This is a high-end, fully automated medication distribution
system, unlike the smaller automated dispensing cabinets proposed for Mercy
Medical Center. A robotic system is incompatible with Mercy Medical Center as it is
prohibitive in terms of the cost. There is also a lack of definitive evidence indicating
that dispensing errors and inventory management issues can be resolved effectively
using this technology (Rodriguez-Gonzalez et al., 2019). Smaller care centers link the
ordering of supplies with a medication distribution system in order to ensure a
continuous supply of medication (Rovers & Mages, 2017). This would also help
prevent overstocking. However, implementing the technique would require a
complete overhaul of the current supply ordering system, which, given the large size
of the center, is not recommended. Therefore, this technique is not feasible for Mercy
Medical Center.



■ Key administrative personnel will form a
quality committee

■ Nursing staff will identify processes in
which most medication errors occur

■ Pharmacists should ensure strict
compliance of stocking and dispensing

■ Board members will ensure transparency
and efficiency

■ Patients and family members will provide
feedback for improvement

The key administrative personnel establish role accountability, articulate the
organization’s quality improvement norms, and regularly strengthen a culture of
safety among the staff. A quality committee comprised of key administrative
personnel can ensure an exchange of expertise between members of the committee
and nursing staff and better monitoring of strategy implementation. This committee
will ensure that the medical, nursing, emergency care, and pharmacy staff adhere to
federal and state quality and safety benchmarks (Parand et al., 2014). The
multidisciplinary committee should also involve the main nursing staff as they have
firsthand experience in dealing with medication administration problems. They will
be able to recognize the shortfalls that lead to errors. Additionally, pharmacists can
cross-check with prescribers for discrepancies in medication orders while receiving
prescriptions (The Health Foundation, 2012; Ferencz, 2014).


References (1)
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2017). Guide to patient and family engagement in hospital quality and

safety. https://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/systems/hospital/engagingfamilies/index.html

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (n.d.). Guidance for performing failure mode and effects analysis with

performance improvement projects. https://cms.gov/Medicare/Provider-Enrollment-and-


Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2017). Patient safety standards. https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Quality-


Code of Maryland Regulations. (n.d.). Hospital patient safety program.

Darwesh, B. M., Machudo, S. Y., & John, S. (2017). The experience of using an automated dispensing system to improve

medication safety and management at King Abdul aziz University Hospital. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Community

Medicine 3(3), 114–119. http://doi.org/10.5530/jppcm.2017.3.26

Elden, N. M. K., & Ismail, A. (2016). The importance of medication errors reporting in improving the quality of clinical care

services. Global Journal of Health Science, 8(8), 243–251. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n8p243

Ferencz, N. (2014). Safety of automated dispensing systems. U.S. Pharmacist.


Institute for Healthcare Improvement. (n.d.). Failure modes and effects analysis.




References (2)
Kavanagh, C. (2017). Medication governance: Preventing errors and promoting patient safety. British Journal of Nursing,

26(3), 159–165. http://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2017.26.3.159

Parand, A., Dopson, S., Renz, A., & Vincent, C. (2014). The role of hospital managers in quality and patient safety: A

systematic review. BMJ Open, 4(9). http://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005055

Rochais, É., Atkinson, S., Guilbeault, M., & Bussières, J.-F. (2014). Nursing perception of the impact of automated

dispensing cabinets on patient safety and ergonomics in a teaching health care center. Journal of Pharmacy Practice,

27(2), 150–157. https://doi.org/10.1177/0897190013507082

Rodriguez-Gonzalez, C. G., Herranz-Alonso, A., Escudero-Vilaplana, V., Ais-Larisgoitia, M. A., Iglesias-Peinado, I., & Sanjurjo-
Saez, M. (2019). Robotic dispensing improves patient safety, inventory management, and staff satisfaction in an

outpatient hospital pharmacy. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 25(1), 28–35.


Rovers, J. P., & Mages, M. D. (2017). A model for a drug distribution system in remote Australia as a social determinant of

health using event structure analysis. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1), 677.


The Health Foundation. (2012). Evidence scan: Reducing prescribing errors.


Weant, K. A., Bailey, A. M., & Baker, S. N. (2014). Strategies for reducing medication errors in the emergency department.

Open Access Emergency Medicine, 6, 45–55. https://doi.org/10.2147/OAEM.S64174


Policy Proposal

Miatta Teasley

Georgena Wiley

Health Care Law and Policy

May 03, 2022

Policy Proposal

When advocating for organizational regulation changes about federal, state, or local health care guidelines or rules and regulations, healthcare practitioners should be able to create and advance an engaging and logical policy and guideline parameters that will provide a segment, a group, or an entire institution to correct and shed light on issues of accomplishment and execute developments in the quality and safety of medical management.

Despite being recognized as one of the greatest health insurance carriers for people over 65, several departments need to be modernized. The most pressing of these has been controlling dialysis measures and therapy adherence. Dialysis measures, inpatient mortality, and intervention adherence are linked to higher healthcare costs, poor treatment outcomes, and decreased efficiency. This paper explains why policy and practice standards must be adjusted to meet the defined benchmarks in controlling dialysis measurements and therapy adherence.

The proposed policy and practice guidelines changes, the impact of factors on practice guidelines application, and the need to include key stakeholders to guarantee successful implementation.

Need for Policy and Practice Guidelines

There exists a number of unreliability in dialysis measures at Med. The two stand out on the dashboard for carrying out the planned actions and procedures, with a 77 percent compliance rate for obtaining blood cultures before delivering antibiotics and a 58 percent conformity value for dispensing vasopressors to patients who need them. According to Medicare.Gov (n.d.), the country-level for achieving dialysis recommendations is 72 percent, while the state of Minnesota is 60 percent, meaning that Med is operating at an inclusive rate of 82%. Bigger quota is needed to guarantee that inhabitants of healthcare institutions have a better quality of life.

Inpatient mortality, intervention adherence, and dialysis measurements need more resources and care interventions, lowering the efficiency of health care services provided. Given the costs that such incidents may impose on patients and health care providers, an organizational policy to address the gap in medication mistake reduction is required.

Medication Error Analysis

The institution is dealing with two major concerns. The Department’s principal problem is that it is perennially understaffed. On a monthly average patient number, the Department was understaffed by 1.34 nurse workload departments. According to the compliance team, the institution has not followed the Department’s mandatory standard. There are various factors to consider when it comes to employing qualified and skilled staff, such as financial burden and logistics (Rizzolo, Novick & Cervantes, 2020).

Another issue is that Med does not have a defined policy or practice norms for any of the care at any institution level, which could lead to dialysis interventions not being given correctly. The institution for critical care medicine, according to a memorandum, has created the final standards for practice in treating adult diabetes. There are no policies to govern how medical personnel employ these resources in their approach. Procedures should be defined and reinforced to protect the ordering required for tests (Rizzolo, Novick & Cervantes, 2020).

On the other hand, learning from these blunders will help to limit their recurrence and improve care actions. Every reported error is an opportunity to create a countermeasure that will aid in avoiding or mitigating the repercussions of the same mistake in the future (Weant et al., 2014).

A healthcare system that exposes patients to medical blunders must be scrutinized. Failure mode and effects analysis is a technique for analyzing instances involving pharmaceutical errors. The medical facility can use this type of analysis to commission the development of a multidisciplinary committee to assess processes prone to errors.

Policy and Practice Guidelines for Managing Diabetes

Policy Statement

Patient safety and public health are compromised at Med owing to a lack of adequate intervention compliance for diabetic patients. In a pharmaceutical error, this guideline offers a structure for health care practitioners to follow. The practice guidelines and recommendations will lay the groundwork for the better execution of the two evidence-based remedies given.


The policy covers nursing employees, medical staff, emergency and allied care practitioners, and pharmacy professionals. Everyone involved is responsible for managing dialysis measures and ensuring intervention compliance.

Practice Guidelines

To improve health care outcomes, the institution must develop a plan within the presently tracked recommended dialysis interventions that will deliver the greatest results for administering vasopressors and performing blood cultures. This recommendation is made with the patients and ethical care in mind.

The AACE recommendations recommend A1C of 6.5 percent. Individuals with a lengthy life span, fewer concomitant diseases, and minimal to no record of hypoglycemia could profit from tougher A1C objectives. Still, many older patients might gain from a less strict A1C objective (Polello & Woodward, 2014).

According to Kate Jones (2021), a Carilion Clinic listed diabetes instructor and dietitian; optimal diabetes control comprises of what she refers to as the four M’s:

Meals – In opposition to common assumptions, there is no such thing as a diabetes diet. Jones suggests taking smaller, more recurrent meals and potentially even snacks to roll out carbohydrates all day and avoid blood sugar sharp increment.

Movement – Exercise or movement aids the body use insulin more effectively to reduce blood sugar and benefits management of weight. Endeavour to achieve at least 30 minutes of cardiovascular exercise regularly and two to three times per week of weight training that includes all major muscle groups.

Medication – Some people may solely maintain their blood sugar levels with exercise and diet, but countless require diabetic medicines or insulin therapy. Jones notes that even if a person has succeeded in controlling their diabetes for several years, it is critical to maintaining their A1C levels evaluated consistently, as suggested by their medicare physician.

Monitoring – Subject to your medication programme, you may need to examine and note your blood sugar level regularly or numerous times per day. Inquire with your doctor about how frequently you should check your blood sugar.

Fifty percent of patients in the second quarter of the dialysis sample perished due to a lack of essential intervention, which is unacceptable. As a result, suggestions for patient care should be developed. Creating a training program is crucial for introducing nurses and doctors to the best practices for dealing with the problem. From the aspect of the patient’s safety, the plan must also emphasize the significance of compliance with all critical interventions (Erickson & Winkelmayer, 2018).

The development of automated protocols may aid in ensuring rapid responses to the tests required when performing dialysis on patients. Ordering doctors, nurses, laboratory personnel, and the Department of Technology and Information should be included. Each unit is responsible for ensuring that dialysis testing is ordered and completed on time.

Effects of Environmental Factors

Environmental elements play part in the etiopathogenesis of diabetes. Stress, dirt, absence of physical exercise, polluted water, an unhealthy diet, insufficiency of vitamin D, subjection to enteroviruses, and immune cell destruction are all environmental contributors (Raman, 2016).

These environmental factors can impact how practice recommendations are implemented, hypertension intervention, and inpatient mortality. Incidents of compliance and intervention concerns are routinely reported verbally, regardless of how frequently they occur. As a result, faults may go unnoticed. Inaccuracies in verbal communication may result in data documentation problems. According to Claudia et al., the prospect of improving patient safety is limited when mistakes are discussed verbally (Elden & Ismail, 2016).

Diabetes and obesity are frequently associated with hypertension. These disorders are grouped as metabolic syndrome. Persons having metabolic syndrome are at a higher risk of going down with cardiovascular infection.

Diabetes and hypertension share several proximate causes and risk factors. A person who has one ailment is more likely to develop the other. Similarly, a person who has both illnesses may find that one worsens the other (Medical News Today, 2022).

Healthcare practitioners must be regularly trained on new medications, procedures, and policies for the recommended practice guidelines to be effectively implemented. Aside from that, creating simulated environments will provide caregivers confidence in their abilities to deliver drugs. It is critical to develop a safety culture within the organization, allowing caregivers to disclose errors without fear of repercussions or compulsion.

Stakeholder Involvement in Implementing Proposed Strategies

Key administrative staff like the director of nursing, the chief executive officer, or chief operating officer can assist. These experts can create a quality committee to share their expertise and oversee the successful implementation of the proposed measures. By establishing role accountability and regularly expressing the organization’s quality improvement norms, senior administrative individuals can foster a safety culture among the healthcare staff (Parand et al., 2014).

The participation of Med’s administration and care providers will lead to more transparency in strategy implementation. It will bring in varied knowledge, provide a forum for debate and discussion, and ensure that all parties concerned have a say in the decisions made by these strategies. As a result, teamwork between Med’s administration and care providers will ensure that the planned ideas are implemented successfully.


In conclusion, incidents caused by noncompliance and a lack of intervention might impact a health care institution’s efficiency. However, integrating compliance and intervention analysis and addressing the issue of chronically understaffed departments can greatly lessen intervention compliance concerns. Above all, building a culture of safety and quality improvement at Med is vital to the effectiveness of the proposed policy.


Elden, N. M. K., & Ismail, A. (2016). The importance of medication errors reporting in improving the quality of clinical care services. Global Journal of Health Science, 8(8), 243–251. Retrieved from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5016354/

Erickson, K. F., & Winkelmayer, W. C. (2018). Evaluating the evidence behind policy mandates in US dialysis care. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 29(12), 2777-2779.

Kate Jones (2021). The 4 M’s of Diabetes Management. Retrieved from https://carilionclinicliving.com/article/conditions/4-ms-diabetes-management

Medical News Today (2022). The link between diabetes and hypertension. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317220#outlook

Parand, A., Dopson, S., Renz, A., & Vincent, C. (2014). The role of hospital managers in quality and patient safety: A systematic review. BMJ Open, 4(9). Retrieved from


Raman, P. G. (2016). Environmental factors in causation of diabetes mellitus. In Environmental Health Risk-Hazardous Factors to Living Species. IntechOpen.

Rizzolo, K., Novick, T. K., & Cervantes, L. (2020). Dialysis care for undocumented immigrants with kidney failure in the COVID-19 era: public health implications and policy recommendations. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 76(2), 255-257.

Tan, E., Polello, J., & Woodard, L. J. (2014). An evaluation of the current type 2 diabetes guidelines: where they converge and diverge. Clinical Diabetes, 32(3), 133-139.

Weant, K. A., Bailey, A. M., & Baker, S. N. (2014). Strategies for reducing medication errors in the emergency department. Open access emergency medicine: OAEM, 6, 45.


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