Advanced Theories and Techniques of Counseling
RE: DB 1.2 – Our Roots in Theory
Research evolves more regularly than we think to imagine, recently research has led to move around from simple stress models to more complex models of psychopathology with a focus on environmental interactions and epigenetics (Jimenez et al., 2018). Psychotherapy also entails a specific type of learning in context with an emotional relationship, like therapeutic relationships. After reading this week’s course material and other sources, it interested to see how much has evolved over time. Epigenetics research has supported the idea of adverse psychosocial experiences which are associated with mental health disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and addiction (Jones et al., 2021).
Even though some treatments are seen as negative there are also positives that are connected as well. Positive epigenetic associations include counseling interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness, diet, and exercise, (Jones et al., 2021). This allows counselors to gain a head start on life span health prevention and overall wellness which is necessary within today’s climate regarding mental health. I appreciate the need for constant research, and it is evolving over time because those who seek mental health are considered a different generation than those before us. Over the years mental health as been acknowledged on a more aggressive scale, people who did not take their mental serious have died nearly two decades sooner due to lack of treatment and physical care (WHO, 2022). It is refreshing to see the change continue and I am sure it will continue to evolve as more research, studies, and treatment plans are being conducted.
Jimenez, P., Botto, A., Herrera, L., Leighton, C., Rossi, J., Quevedo, Y., Silva, J., Martinez, F., Assar, R., Salazar, L., Ortiz, M., Rios, U., Barros, P., Jaramillo, K., & Luyten, P. (2018). Psychotherapy and genetic neuroscience: An emerging dialog. Retrieved from Psychotherapy and Genetic Neuroscience: An Emerging Dialog – PMC (nih.gov)
Jones, D., Park, J., Gamby, K., Bigelow, T., Mersha, T., & Folger, A. (2021). Mental health epigenetics: A primer with implications for counselors. Retrieved from Mental Health Epigenetics: A Primer With Implications for Counselors | The Professional Counselor (nbcc.org)
World Health Organization. (2022). Mental health. Retrieved from Mental health (who.int)
RE: DB 1.2 – Our Roots in Theory
This student hopes that she is in the right area.
About 2000 years ago, a scholar helped people with alcoholism by putting a spider under that person’s drinking glass and called this Aversion Therapy(Wedding & Corsini, 2014). Others used modeling, shaping, and reinforcement; however, the root of behavior therapy grew out of operant conditioning and was influenced by classical conditioning (Wedding & Corsini, 2014). Although with behavioral treatment, there were expanded boundaries that led to the introduction of cognitive techniques; for example, Albert Ellis was the first to start rational psychotherapy in 1955(Wedding & Corsini, 2014). According to research, counseling is about 115 years old, and people only started to gather up to create a new profession in the 1950s (Watson, 2013). For example, the part where counseling began was in 460-377 B.C. (Hippocrates) known as Father Medicine (Watson, 2013). That year, people started to think that behavioral and mental health had something to do with the balance of human bodily fluids (Blood, Black Bile, Yellow Bile, Phlegm (Watson, 2013). However, in the middle ages, physical and behavioral were known as the result of ” supernatural forces,” which is when people were battling good and evil(Watson, 2013). Due to this situation, they built asylums in the 16 century and gave the people their ethical treatment by the 17th century (Watson, 2013). By the 1800s, it had become an advice-giving or a gathering place(Watson, 2013). In the year 1844 where about 13 asylum directors started to form the Association of Medical Superintendents of Americans Institution for the Insane (AMSAII); then it was later changed to AmericanMedico-Psychological Association in 1892 once; in 1927, it was changed to American Psychiatric Association (Watson, 2013). Sigmund Freud used Psychotherapy in the 1900s, which later emerged with psychoanalysis and behaviorism (Watson, 2013). Moreover, Jesse Davis started the first school guidance program to teach children how to deal with changes in the world, along with problem-solving skills (Watson, 2013).
Watson, J (2013) Historical Foundations of the Counseling Profession Historical Foundations of the Counseling Professio – Bing video
Wedding, D & Corsini, R (2014) Current Psychotherapies 11 edition Bookshelf: Current Psychotherapies (vitalsource.com)
RE: DB 1.3 – Case Study: Eve and Raleigh
Professor and Class-
After reviewing the case study, it appears some of the concerns of Eve’s aunt may be valid, but making such a judgment regarding what a tough road the children have already had, is hard to hear. Steven
Pinker (2002) speaks on the principle that all humans share unique human nature. ( Wedding & Corsini, 2018) While we are made up of different genetics, the environment around us, and different
experiences, remaining cognizant of these human regularities, clinicians will still need to uncover those traits influenced by patients’ life events. It is essential to consider all factors for each individual, especially
with a history of substance or alcohol abuse. Alcohol dependence is a genetic disease. It has been known to run in families, and while genetic differences affect risk, there is no “gene for alcoholism.” Both
environmental and social factors weigh heavily on the outcome. ( Edenberg & Foroud,2013) Genetic factors affect the risk not only for alcohol dependence but also the level of alcohol consumption and the risk
for alcohol-associated diseases, including cirrhosis and upper GI cancers. While Eve’s aunt has concerns for the children, they may have a long road ahead if one or both children also inherit this disease.
Adopting adoption studies show that alcoholism in adoptees correlates more strongly with their biological parents than their adoptive parents. ( Edenberg& Foroud, 2013) Genetics may play a significant factor
and one that all should be aware of, although it should not persuade a decision as the children did not choose this and deserve a loving, supportive family as well,
Edenberg, H. J., & Foroud, T. (2013). Genetics and alcoholism. Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 10(8), 487–494. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2013.86
Wedding, D. & Corsini, R. J. (Eds.). (2019). Current psychotherapies (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage
RE: DB 1.3 – Case Study: Eve and Raleigh
Dr. Rankine and class:
We carry our genes from generation to generation. Growing up with the biological family, behaviors/diseases can be transferred on to newer members of the family. For example, there is alcoholism in this writer’s family. When going back generation to generation, alcoholism has affected many members of her entire family – including aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandparents. This writer recognizes that this may be true when children are not raised by their biological parents; however, it is very possible that those genes may remain within the child even after they were raised by others. This writer believes that environment influence has much to do with how a person’s behaviors follow what they learned and not always based upon genetics.
E.J. Nestler (2011) states that scientists have learned that based upon one’s experiences in their environment through their life stages can modify the activities of our genes and the way their traits progress (Wedding & Corsini, 2019). He compared it to pups being raised by a nurturing mother versus those who were neglected of such nurturance.
Maltreatment of children is a prevalent issue caused by family members and is related to various negative life out comes. Substance abuse is a common issue associated with child abuse/maltreatment. Azimi & Connolly (2022) state that not all individuals who have experienced maltreatment continue the negative cycle. Many can positively adapt to experiences and their resilience and susceptibility. They state that genetic differences may partly explain why some continue with negative behaviors/outcomes and others do not.
Briley, et al. (2019) report that all models of genetic behavior and environmental processes give rise to psychological phenotypes. They state that the theoretical model hypothesizes multifaceted, dynamic development processes showing genetic variation comes to be enforced with and statistically dependent on experience. (Briley, et al., 2019, p.196).
From what this writer understands, it is believed that environment can be an indicator of what our outcomes of people decisions and lives. In reference to the situation with Eve and Raleigh, if they understand and continue to learn how genetics can play a part in the behavior of this adopted sibling group, and if they provide a nurturing, loving environment, they may not see the negative influences genes may have.
On a personal note, this writer’s mother grew up with two alcoholic parents who were neglectful and abusive. She and her siblings (nine) spent some time in a children’s home due to the neglect and abuse. She and most of her siblings are not alcoholics. They decided to beat the odds recognizing how they could end up should they follow their parent’s path. She has an uncle who fortunately worked for a company where the owners took him under their wings. He has had a remarkably successful happy life. This writer sees how a controversial discussion has been ongoing about genetics vs. environment.
Overall, this information is quite necessary when collaborating with clients. Understanding where they came from genetically and environmentally can assist in helping the client work through any issues they have regarding negative outcomes.
Azimi, A.M. & Connolly, E.J. (2022). Child maltreatment and substance use: A behavior genetic
analysis. Child Maltreatment, 27(2), 279-289.
Briley, D.A., Livengood, J., Derringer, J., Tucker-Drob, E.M., Fraley, R.C., & Roberts, B.W. (2019)
Interpreting behavior genetic models: Seven development processes to understand. Behavior
Genetics, 49(2), 196-210.
Nestler, E. J. (2011). Hidden switches in the mind. Scientific American, 304(6), 77–83.
Wedding, D. & Corsini, R. J. (Eds.). (2019). Current psychotherapies (11th ed.). Boston, MA: