RLMT301 (Week 2)
This assignment is an introduction to college-level essay writing. Create an essay in APA format. Check the examples in the library writing resources and brush up on writing skills. Develop an essay of two to four pages, excluding title and reference page. Create an introduction using APA section title, repeating the title page byline. Then, use 1st and 2nd level section titles to create topics from the reading. Within each section title (topic) develop essay points by combining information from two or more library articles. Select topics from the course readings. Introduce the topic by paraphrasing information from the class reading. Then, search the library for articles on the topics selected from the class reading. Paraphrasing information from resources (class material and library articles) is a good way to demonstrate understanding of course objectives. Remember to match the title page format, section titles, citations, and references in APA format. Match each type to examples in the library writing resources.
APA Formatting required.
RLMT301 (Week 2) Individual Assignment This assignment is an introduction to college-level essay writing. Create an essay in APA format. Check the examples in the library writing resources and brus
APA Guidelines New Sixth Edition Changes The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association has recently updated the widely referenced Manual to a Sixth Edition which has simplified and condensed the material while retaining and strengthening the basic rules of APA. American Public University APA Guidelines New Guidelines Sixth Edition 2010 In today’s fast growing technological world, new inventions have altered the manner in which we gather report and perform scientific research. Thus, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association has updated the widely referenced Manual to a Sixth Edition which has simplified and condensed the material while retaining and strengthening the basic rules of APA. This reference guide will concentrate on the Basic Elements of APA writing. July, 2009, the American Psychological Association released its sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, with modifications to APA Style writing. According to the APA Website (www.apastyle.org), the Manual ‘s Copyright is 2010 and changes are being implemented. Currently a mixture of the fifth and sixth editions are acceptable. As of January 1, 2010, only the sixth edition will be accepted. As you continue your higher education, you are faced with different writing styles. This reference guide will concentrate on the basic principles of APA style as it applies to writing term (research) papers and essays. This reference guide will provide helpful tips and suggestions to assist in producing a scholarly term paper or essay using APA formatting and style guidelines. Sixth Edition changes and/or locations are in RED. CHANGES TO THE NEW APA EDITION Simplified and condensed Ethical issues expanded Simplified heading styles Avoiding bias in language New mechanics of style for ease of reading essays Citing sources in one location Citing passages from electronic text/archival copy Guidelines for new technology such as DOI More focus on publication process WHY APA? APA (Sixth Edition) has broadened its audience since it is consulted not only by psychologists but also by students & researchers in many fields such as business, education, social work, nursing and many other behavioral and social sciences. APA rules permit uniformity of many styles to one consistent style. (8.03) BASIC APA PAPER CONSISTS OF: The cover page or title page Abstract (optional) Text of the paper Reference page (2.01- 2.03, 8.03) TITLE PAGE APA Manuscript elements of the title page: Running head: TITLE OF PAPER 1 Title of Paper Author’s Name American Public University The Sixth Edition has revised the Title Page to consist of five elements: title, running head, author byline, institutional affiliation and author note (for publication). (8.03) For essay papers, author’s note is not required. Notice the Running head is flush left and the page number is flush right on the same line. They are permanent (will appear on every page of the paper with only page numbers changing). The title should be no more than 12 words in length and should not contain abbreviations. Your title may be one or two lines. Double space your title page and throughout your paper. Under the title is the author’s name consisting of first name, middle initial, and last name. No titles or degrees are used (Dr. or Ph.D.) Under the author’s name is the institutional affiliation – American Public University. (2.04) ABSTRACT TITLE OF PAPER 2 Abstract This is a summary, not an introduction of the paper. This is one of the few times an indent is not required. The length of the abstract is one paragraph (double spaced) and should not exceed 120 words. Some papers require an abstract (consult your instructor). Begin with a new page (do not indent) with a brief and comprehensive summary of your paper. Use past tense for procedures and present tense for results. Abstract is usually easier to write upon completion of the paper. Avoid citing within the Abstract. Center Abstract (unformatted – no italics, bold, underlining, etc) at the top of the page. The Abstract is a single paragraph, double spaced, without indentions ranging from 150-250 words. Use numerals to express all numbers in the Abstract (with the exception of starting a sentence). (8.03) BODY OF THE PAPER Running head: TITLE OF PAGE 3 Title of paper centered Body of paper requires many set rules and guidelines. Examples shown are not to scale, therefore, please visit the online library or the APA Manual for exact placement. Starting on page 3 (if Abstract is not required – page 2) and center the title of the paper in upper and lower case letters. Paragraphs are indented ½ inch (5 to 7 spaces) and double spaced. Do not add additional lines between paragraphs. BASIC APA WRITING COMPONENTS (2.01-2.03) Title page: Use APA format (see Title Page above) (2.01) Title: Name your paper. The title can “hook” your readers. (2.05) Introductory Paragraph: Tell the readers what you are about to tell them. Pretend the reader has no idea what you are writing about, thus, giving detailed information. The thesis statement is often the last sentence of the first paragraph. Generally, the introductory paragraph is past tense. (2.05) Thesis Statement: Essentially, a thesis statement answers the question, “What do I want my readers to know after they have read my essay?” (2.08) Body: Tell them what you want to tell them. The number of paragraphs will depend on the length and complexity of your paper. (2.08) Concluding Paragraph: This is a short summary. You should not introduce any new information. WRITING THE PAPER There are specific guidelines when writing an APA style paper. Center the title at the top of page two (page 3 if there is an Abstract). The title is written in uppercase and lowercase letters. (3.03) Double space entire paper (8.03) Use 1 inch margins (8.03) Text is left aligned (8.03) Two spaces after sentence terminator – rather than one (New Sixth Edition Change) (4.01) 12 point font (new Sixth Edition of APA requires New Times Roman only) and black ink (8.03) Same font throughout with the exception of italicizing (8.03) (1) introducing a key term you wish to emphasize(4.21) (2) titles of books, periodicals, films, videos, TV shows and microfilm publications (4.21) (there are more in-depth examples if you would like to reference 4.21 in New Sixth Edition of APA Manual) First sentence of a paragraph must be indented (8.03) (with the exception of the Abstract) (2.04) Quotes 40 words or more must be in blocked quotation format with no quotation marks and include the page number in parentheses after the last period (4.08) WRITING TIPS FOR STUDENTS Brainstorming: Before beginning to write, take the time to put your ideas down on paper. Mind-mapping and list-making are two useful brainstorming techniques. Organizing: Plan your paper or assignment. This may be as simple as a chronological list of your points or as elaborate as a formal outline. Multiple Drafts: Professional writers create multiple drafts of their writing. You should too. Extra Time: Quality writing takes time – lots of time. Build in a cushion of extra time. Allow Time Between Drafts: While a break of 24 hours or more is ideal, a thirty minute break will yield positive results. Help from Others: Being mindful of plagiarism and academic honesty, request proofreading help. Use Formal Voice: Academic writing is more formal than casual conversations, emails, and instant messages. Perspective: Use third person point of view when writing research papers (avoiding pronouns such as I, we, my, our (first person) and you, yours, your, us, we (second person). You should deal with facts and not opinions, thus providing citations within your paper and on your reference page. Focus on the subject itself and not on your feelings about the subject. The use of third person retains a formal tone in your writing. (3.09) Tone: An effective way to achieve the correct tone is write in a way to educate and persuade the reader. (3.07) Reducing Bias: Use the word person instead of he (considered sexist) or he/she (which can be awkward). Avoid use of the terms such as opposite sex and minority. Be aware of the order of presentation of social groups. Also, take note with language concerning gender, race, disability and sexuality. (3.12-3.17) Flow of Paper: Use transitional words helping maintain the flow of thought. Use a pronoun referring to a noun in a preceding sentence allows a smooth transition and elevates repetition. Other words assisting in transition are time links (after, next, since, then, while), cause-effect links (as a result, consequently, as a result), addition links (furthermore, in addition, moreover, similarly), and contrast links (although, but, conversely, however, nevertheless). (3.05) Wordiness and Redundancy: Eliminate wordy sentences; get your point across with as few words as possible eliminating empty words such as “that”. (3.08) Word Choice: Use scholarly words. (ex: kids = children; hate = dislike) (3.09) Complete Sentences: Write in complete sentences and avoid slang. Complete sentences contain both subjects and verbs. Avoid run on sentences. Subject-Verb Agreement: Be sure your subject and verb agree. For example, “we are” rather than “we is,” “they did” rather than “they done.” (3.19) Verb Tense and Active Voice: Limit shifts in verb tense, and use active voice rather than passive voice. (3.18) Awkward Phrasing: Use Standard English phrasing. For example, “try to do” rather than “try and do,” “we went” rather than “us went.” Long Paragraphs Preferred: Be sure your ideas are fully developed in each of your paragraphs. This usually results in paragraphs of five or more sentences. (3.08) Full Wording Rather Than Contractions: Convert contractions to their complete word-partner. For example: it’s = it is won’t = will not haven’t = have not Homonyms: Homonyms are words that sound alike but are spelled differently and have different definitions. For example, new and knew, your and you’re, and know and no. Acronyms: Identify acronyms on first use. Example: American Pubic University (APUS). (4.23) Non-words: Ensure all your words are Standard English words. For example, “alot” is not a word. Frequently Misspelled Words: Be alert for commonly confused words. For example, possess and posses, a lot and allot, definitely and defiantly, and their and there. Numbers: 0-9 are written out while 10 and above are written as numbers (Exceptions: numbers expressing approximate lengths of time be written as words ex: 1 hr 30 min; 12:30 a.m.; about 3 months ago) (4.31-4.34)Use numerals to express all numbers in the Abstract (with the exception of starting a sentence). (4.31) (New Sixth Edition Change) etc.: Avoid using etc. at the end of a list unless it is part of the quotation. (4.26) Parenthesis: Parentheses are most often used in citations. Before using them in other applications, consult the APA handbook for guidance. (4.09) Commas and Introductory Phrases: Usually commas are placed between an introductory phrase and the main sentence; however, commas are rarely used to separate a concluding phrase. Colon: Colons should only be used when the introductory phrase is a complete sentence. (4.05) Semicolon: Semicolons are used to either connect two complete sentences, or to connect a list with commas. (4.04) Ampersand: If the citation is in parentheses, use the ampersand (‘&’) instead of the word “and”. (6.12) Slashes: Use dashes rather than slashes. (4.06) Punctuation when ending a Quote: If quotation is at the end of a sentence, close quote with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses, and end with a period or other punctuation outside the final parenthesis. If quote is in mid-sentence, close quote with quotation marks, cite the source immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence. (6.03) Question Marks and Quotation Marks: Place question marks outside the quotation mark unless the question mark is part of the quotation. (4.08) Single Quotation Marks: The only time you use single quotation marks is inside of double quotation marks. (4.08) Exclamation Points: Exclamation points should not be used unless the exclamation point is part of a quotation. (4.08) Titles of Books and Magazines: Italicize the title of books and magazines. (4.21) Titles of Articles and Chapters: Place the title of articles and chapters of books in quotation marks to set off when mentioned in text. (4.07) Bold: Use italicizing to emphasize words rather than Bold. (4.21) Levels of Headings: (3.03) Level Format 1 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings 2 Left Aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings 3 Indented, Boldface, lowercase paragraph heading with a period. 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading with a period. 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading with a period. DIRECT QUOTES VERSUS PARAPHRASING Direct quote is the exact words of an author or source. (6.03) Example: According to Conner (2004) “Many of us understand all sorts of things but never have the opportunity or take the time to try them out” (p. 161). Paraphrasing is your own rendition of someone else’s information or idea. (6.04) Example: Many people possess knowledge on a multitude of topics, but infrequently have the chance to take advantage of such knowledge (Conner, 2008). Block quotations of 40 words or more. Make each line of the quote begin in the same place, creating a straight line on the left side of the quotation, while the right side is jagged. (6.03) (4.08) Do NOT use quotation marks unless there are quotations within the quotation then use normal quotation marks, not single ones. Remember, you must still give credit for the source. Place periods or commas within quotation marks when they are part of the quoted material. At end of quote, place period then page number. Example: …… placebo effect. (p. 276) Page number must be given for direct quotes. If no page numbers are available, cite the paragraph number using the abbreviation para. (instead of the symbol ¶). If no page or paragraph numbers are available, cite the heading and paragraph number in which the information is found: (Discussion section, para. 2). (6.05) (Sixth Edition) (2.11) COMPONENTS OF A REFERENCE PAGE ` Running head: TITLE OF PAPER 7 References Stielow, F. J. (2003). Building digital archives. New York: Neal-Schuman Running head and page number Title of page Alphabetize Double Space Hanging Indent The word “References” (“Reference if only one source) should appear at the top center of the page. Entries are double spaced with the top line justified to the left. Additional lines of each reference are indented (hanging indent). Do not list a reference for which you do not have a citation in the body of the paper. Similarly, do not include a citation without a corresponding reference. OBTAINING REFERENCES FROM RELIABLE SOURCES Most information on the Internet is the electronic equivalent of the other print sources listed and therefore not acceptable as a college reference. The Internet is unregulated and there is no quality control. By using the online library and accessing the Deep Web, you will be able to located reliable and scholarly information for your research. You can only use the Internet if it is the equivalent of other acceptable sources such as: Reputable News Media (Time, Newsweek, New York Times) Serious Popular Magazines (New Yorker, National Geographic) Government Publications WHAT IS A CITATION? A “citation” is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including (6.11 – 6.21): information about the author the title of the work the name and location of the company that published your copy of the source the date your copy was published the page numbers of the material you are borrowing Why should I cite sources? Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people’s work without plagiarizing. But there are a number of other reasons to cite sources: Citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find out more about your ideas and where they came from. Not all sources are good or right – your own ideas may often be more accurate or interesting than those of your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking the rap for someone else’s bad ideas. Citing sources shows the amount of research you’ve done. Citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your ideas. Doesn’t citing sources make my work seem less original? Not at all. On the contrary, citing sources actually helps your reader distinguish your ideas from those of your sources. This will actually emphasize the originality of your own work. When do I need to cite? Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations almost always require citation: Whenever you use quotes Whenever you paraphrase Whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another Whenever someone else’s work has been critical in developing your own ideas. Do I have to cite sources for every fact I use? No. You do not have to cite sources for facts that are not the result of unique individual research. Facts that are readily available from numerous sources and generally known to the public are considered “common knowledge,” and are not protected by copyright laws. You can use these facts liberally in your paper without citing authors. If you are unsure whether or not a fact is common knowledge, you should probably cite your source just to be safe. (Information derived from American Public University COLL100) GUIDELINES FOR CITING REFERENCES References are in alphabetical order by author name. (6.25) If no author, do not use Anonymous. The title takes the place of the author and the reference is alphabetized by the first letter of the first word of the title [in text citation, use quotation marks (“Study Finds,” 2005)]. If work is designated as “Anonymous”, cite in the text and reference list as so. Do not list the author as anonymous or unknown unless that is the way the author is listed on the source. (6.15) When citing eight or more authors on a reference page, the first six authors are listed; all subsequent authors except the last are omitted and replaced with an ellipsis; and then the name of the last author is listed. (6.27) In-text citation, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (6.12) (Sixth Edition) When citing periodicals, if the volume number is 22, the issue is 3, and the page range is 23 through 25. Write the information as follows: 22(3), 23-25. Do not use the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss., or Pages, p. or pp. (7.01) Following the author’s name, the publication date follows. The date (in parentheses) is always the second part of a reference. (6.28) List the date as follows: (year). For example: (2009). (year, month). For example: (2007, January). Note: Do not use month abbreviations. (year, month day). For example: (1998, June 16). (n.d.). Use n.d. for works which do not contain a publication date Capitalize only the first word of titles, proper nouns (such as names of people, places, studies, etc.), and subtitles following a colon (:). (6.29) Italicize the name of books, journals, and magazines (4.21), but do not italicize the name of an article. (7.01) Book: Learn more now: 10 simple ways to learning better, smarter & faster. Journal: Journal of Social Psychology Magazine: Newsweek New Guidelines for Citing References: Keep the format as simple as possible (Sixth Edition) No retrieval dates needed unless the source material may change over time (6.32) For electronic references, give the DOI, if assigned. Database names are no longer needed. (6.32) If no DOI assigned, provide the URL of the journal or book publisher. (Database names are no longer needed such as ProQuest or EBSCO) (6.32) The digital object identifier (DOI) is an alphanumeric string identifying content providing a link to location on the Internet. Give DOI for journal articles, books, or book chapters accessed online. No period at the end of the string. Do not use the phrase retrieved from. Do not give a retrieval date. The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. (6.31) (Sixth Edition) (7.02) BOOK REFERENCE EXAMPLE Last name, Initials. (yyyy published). Book title. Place of Publication: Publisher. Fischer, L., Schimmel, D., & Stellman, L.R. (2007). Teachers and the law. (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. (7.02) ONLINE BOOK REFERENCE EXAMPLE Last name, Initials. (yyyy published). Book title. Place of Publication: Publisher. Retrieved from … Palmer, R. (2006). Getting straight ‘A’s: A students’ guide to success. New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from Ebrary. (7.02) BOOK REFERENCE WITH DOI EXAMPLE Last name, Initials. (yyyy published). Book title. doi:xxxxx Stielow, F. J. (2003). Building digital archives. doi:xxxxx Note: Database names such as ProQuest or EBSCO or retrieval dates are no longer needed. (6.32) (7.01) JOURNAL ARTICLE REFERENCE EXAMPLE Last name, Initials. (yyyy of journal volume). Article title. Journal, volume number, (issue number), pages Roy, A.J. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 96(1), 171-177 It should be noted using the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss., or Pages, p. or pp. are not acceptable in the citation. Also, the journal title and volume number are italicized. (7.01) (7.01) JOURNAL ARTICLE REFERENCE WITH DOI EXAMPLE Last name, Initials. (yyyy of journal volume). Article title. Journal, volume number, (issue number), pages. doi: xx.xxxxx Roy, A.J. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 96(1), 171- 177. doi: xx.xxxx It should be noted using the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss., or Pages, p. or pp. are not acceptable in the citation. Also, the journal title and volume number are italicized. (6.30) Note: For electronic references, give the DOI, if assigned. Database names such as ProQuest or EBSCO or retrieval dates are no longer needed. (6.32) (Sixth Edition) (7.01) JOURNAL ARTICLE REFERENCE WITHOUT DOI EXAMPLE Last name, Initials. (yyyy of journal volume). Article title. Journal, volume number, (issue number), pages. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxRoy, A.J. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 96(1), 171-177. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx It should be noted using the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss., or Pages, p. or pp. are not acceptable in the citation. Also, the journal title and volume number are italicized. (7.01) Note: Database names such as ProQuest or EBSCO or retrieval dates are no longer needed. Provide URL if DOI is not available. (6.32) (Sixth Edition) (7.03) INTERNET SOURCE EXAMPLES Minnesota Department of Employment. (2007). Excellence in education. Retrieved from http://www.deed.state.mn.us/whymn/ExcInEduc.htm National Education Association. (2009). Educators employment liability program: Benefits. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/home/29065.htm THERE ARE MANY SPECIFIC EXAMPLES IN THE APA MANUAL PLAGIARISM Many people think of plagiarism as copying another’s work, or borrowing someone else’s original ideas. But terms like “copying” and “borrowing” can disguise the seriousness of the offense: According to the Merriam-Webster OnLine Dictionary, to “plagiarize” means to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own to use (another’s production) without crediting the source to commit literary theft to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else’s work and lying about it afterward. But can words and ideas really be stolen? According to U.S. law, the answer is yes. In the United States and many other countries, the expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions. Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some media (such as a book or a computer file). All of the following are considered plagiarism: turning in someone else’s work as your own copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit failing to put a quotation in quotation marks giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not (see our section on “fair use” rules) Attention! Changing the words of an original source is not sufficient to prevent plagiarism. If you have retained the essential idea of an original source, and have not cited it, then no matter how drastically you may have altered its context or presentation, you have still plagiarized Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed, and providing your audience with the information necessary to find that source, is usually enough to prevent plagiarism. (Information derived from American Public University COLL100) APA Checklist Cover Page: Sections of a basic paper include: title page, abstract (optional), text of paper and a reference page. Never submit an APA paper without all sections. (Fifth Edition) Page headers consists of two or three words of the title followed by the page number with a right justified margin. Headers must be PERMANENT. (Fifth Edition) Running head is aligned on the left margin one line below the page header. Should read: Running head:
RLMT301 (Week 2) Individual Assignment This assignment is an introduction to college-level essay writing. Create an essay in APA format. Check the examples in the library writing resources and brus
. Reverse Logistics and Sustainability Reverse logistics, an often overlooked process that can help companies re – duce waste and improve profits, is as the name implies the reverse of what we’ve described so far in terms of planning and oper ations. It can be defined as the process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient flow of recyclable and reusable materials, returns, and reworks from the point of consumption for the purpose of repair, remanufactur – ing, redistribution, or disposal To tak e this a step further, with toda y’s environmental concerns, organi – zations need to try to integr ate environment thinking into the entire sup – ply chain process, forward and reverse. This includes product design, ma – terial sourcing and selection, manufacturing processes, delivery of the fi – nal product to the consumers and “end-of-life” management of the prod – uct after its useful life. In a perfect world of course, there would be no need for much of the ma – terial handled in reverse logistics and later in the book we will discuss ways to use Lean thinking to reduce waste in the supply chain, but for now we will examine concepts and applications in this area. Reverse Logistics A ctivities Chapter 10 Figure 10.1. Logistics and Reverse Logistics Processes According to a 2010 Aberdeen Group study , the average manufacturer spends an astounding 9 to 15% of total revenue on returns [Aberdeen Group, 2010]. There are a variety of reasons for the reverse logistics process. They include: Processing returned merchandise including damaged, seasonal, restock, salvage, recall, or excess inventory . Green initiatives such as recycling packaging materials/containers. Reconditioning, refurbishing, remanufacturing of returned product. Disposition of obsolete inventory. Hazardous materials recovery and electronic waste disposal. So depending on the specific reasons for the process existing in the first place with in an organization, the reverse logistics network can be used for a variety of purposes such as refilling, repairs, refurbishing, remanu – facturing and so on, depending on the nature of the product, unit value, sales volume and distribution channels. Let’s look at some of the major reasons mentioned above in some more detail. Repairs and Refurbishing Repair is a regular feature in service based products under a warr anty period and almost all consumer durables need repairs on a regular basis. Refurbishing, on the other hand, is applied to goods returned b y damage, defects or below promised performance during the warranty period. Manufacturers may establish the reverse logistics system, not only for of – fering free service during the warr anty period but also for extending the services beyond the warranty period on a chargeable basis. The system usually operates through the compan y’s service centers where repair and refurbishing tak es place. The physical collection of defective products is performed through a dealer network. The collected products are sent to the nearest service center for overhaul, repairs or refurbishing. Re-filling Reverse logistics is integr ated to an organizations supply chain in the cases of the reusable nature of packages such as glass bottles, plastic con – tainers, print cartridges, etc. In case of large refillable water bottles, for example, the delivery truck delivers filled bottles to and collects the same number of empty bottles from them for delivery to the factory . No extra transportation costs are in – volved in the process as the same delivery truck originates and termi – nates its journey at the factory where these reusable bottles are refilled for re-delivery to customers. Typically, this type of arr angement is accomplished via a “hub and spok e” distribution system (i.e. a centralized distribution system where inven – tory is shipped from a central location to smaller locations or directly to consumers, similar to a bicycle hub and spok e configuration). Recall This is an emergency situation where the products distributed in the mar – ket are called back to the factory because of an y of the following reasons: • Product not giving the guaranteed performance. • Quality complaints from man y customers. • Defective products causing harm to human life. • Products beyond expiry date. • Products with defective design. • Incomplete product. • Violation of government regulations. • Ethical considerations. • Save the compan y image. A product recall puts a large financial burden on a compan y but in the competitive scenario the companies consider “recall” as an opportunity to increase customer satisfaction. Remanufacturing Manufacturers in developed countries are putting in practice a relatively new concept of re-manufacturing as during the usage of the product it undergoes wear and tear. During remanufacturing, worn out parts are replaced with new ones and the performance of the product is upgr aded to the level of a new one. Similarly, equipment sold can be check ed after use to the remanufactur – ing process and be brought back to the remanufacturing unit. The investment in remanufacturing and related reverse logistics supply chain can be justified on the basis of economies of scale. Recycling and Waste Disposal Leftover materials, used product and package waste are causing environ – mental pollution and creating problems for disposal. In many countries, governments are devising regulations to mak e manu – facturers responsible to minimize waste by recycling products. Returns Vary by Industry In some industries, returns are the major reason for a reverse logistics system as percentages can r ange from as low as 2-3% (chemicals) to over 50% (magazine publishing). Let’s look at some industries to examine wh y the return rates are so high. Publishing Industry The publishing industry has the highest r ate of unsold copies (28% on av – erage). This has been partially a result of the growth of large chain stores requiring more books and magazines. T o secure a prominent display in superstores, publishers must supply large quantities of books. The fact is that superstores sell less than 70% of books they order and they have a relatively short shelf life. Computer Industry Computers have a relatively short life cycle so there are opportunities to reuse and create value out of computer equipment. They contain what is known as “e-waste” such as lead, copper, aluminum gold, plastics and glass. E-waste not only comes from computers but also televisions, cell phones, audio equipment and batteries. For example in the remanufacturing of toner cartridges there are 12,000 remanufacturers, emplo ying 42,000 workers that sell nearly $1 billion worth of remanufactured cartridges annually . Automotive Industry There are three primary areas for reverse logistics in the automotive industry . 1. Components in working order are sold “as is” (ex: parts from junk yards). 2. Components, such as engines, alternators, starters, and tr ansmissions are refurbished before they can be sold. 3. Materials are reclaimed through crushing or shredding. Automotive recyclers handle more than 37% of the nation’ s metal scrap and remanufactured auto parts mark et is estimated at $34 billion annually. Retail Industry Profit margins in retail are so slim that good return management is criti – cal as returns reduce the profitability of retailers marginally more than manufacturers. In fact, returns reduce the profitability of retailers b y 4.3% [ Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998 ] Reverse Logistic Costs Reverse logistics costs come from a variety of activities such as merchan – dise credits to the customers, tr ansportation costs of moving the items from the retail stores to the centr al returns distribution center, repackag – ing of the serviceable items for resale, the cost of warehousing the items awaiting disposition and the cost of disposing of items that are unservice – able, damaged, or obsolete. Besides those tangible costs, there are “intangibles” that greatly impact the customer such as increased customer wait times, loss of confidence in the supply system, and the placement of multiple orders for the same items. Reverse Logistics Process There are five steps to the product returns process, no matter what indus – try you are in…receive, sort and stage, process, analyze, and support [Stock, et al, 2006 ]. 1. Receive Product returns are received at a centralized location, usually a ware – house or distribution center (usually after being gathered from retail lo – cations or returned by the end user themselves). In man y cases, a first step in this process is to provide a return acknowledgment. The returns may arrive via man y carriers and in a variety of packages, ei – ther on full pallets or individual containers. The concept of “pre-postponement” can be useful in this process where companies such as Sauder W oodworking Company who makes ready to assemble furniture, processes returns as close as possible to the point of sale so as to determine quickly which returns were recover able and which were not. 2. Sort and Stage In this stage, returned products are received and sorted for further stag – ing in the returns process. The sorting can be based upon how the items have been returned (i.e. pal – lets, cartons, packets) or the type, size or number of the return. This process generally takes three da ys or less to accomplish. 3. Process Returned products are then sub-sorted into items, based on their stock- keeping unit number. They can then be returned to inventory . If they are vendor returns, they are sorted by vendor. There is usually some kind of processing station where they are process by order of their receipt, type of product, customer type or location, ph ys – ical size of the items, etc. Paperwork that came with the return is separated from the item and compared with the electronic records to identify an y discrepancies. 4. Analyze The value of the returned item is determined by trained emplo yees to see if it should be repaired or refurbished and which are allowable versus non-allowable returns for example. The last part of this step is the mark eting of products that have been repackaged, repaired, refurbished or remanufactured, which are usually shipped to secondary markets. 5. Support At this point, returns in good condition such as back-to-stock or -store items are returned to inventory . If the items require repair, refurbish – ment or repackaging, then diagnostics, repairs and assembly/disassembly operations are performed as needed. Reverse Logistics as a Str ategy As opposed to looking at reverse logistics as a cost center to be mini – mized, as the reality is that it is only around 4% of total supply chain costs, some forward looking companies have started looking at it as a strategic weapon to positively impact revenue. Using Reverse Logistics to Positively Impact Revenue A recent UPS white paper on reverse logistics found some key areas where companies can positively impact revenue with reverse logistics ac – tivities. They are: “Returns-to-Revenue: Companies that ensure timely delivery and processing of returns position themselves to save more or earn more from the returned product. From refurbishing, repackaging and reselling to parts reclamation and recycling, returned products are often untapped sources for revenue. With the secondary, discount market for products continuing to grow , there is even more reasons to think about returns as revenue opportunities. Protecting Profits: Handling returns properly and tr acking all activities is critical to help companies avoid fines and penalties from various govern – ment regulatory agencies such as the FDA, the Consumer Product Safety Commission and other state and federal agencies. Customer Loyalty: According to a nation-wide survey conducted in 2005, 95% of customers will not buy from a compan y if they have a bad returns experience. This, in part, explains why companies considered best in class in reverse logistics enjoy a 12% advantage in over all customer satisfaction over their competition Disposal Benefits: Knowing what is returned and where it ends up mak es it easier for companies to deal with regulatory issues and evaluate returned stock for possible secondary sales channels. There are also other beneficial byproducts to disposing of products, such as avoiding excess inventory carrying costs, avoiding excess taxes and insur – ance, and managing staff levels. Maximize Recovery Rates: Mishandled or completely misplaced returns af – fect the efficiency of any reverse logistics process, but it also means that products could end up a being a total loss for a compan y instead of an op – portunity for resell or a spare parts resource .” [ Greve and Davis, 2012 ] Other Strategic uses of Reverse Logistics Reverse logistics can also be str ategically used to reduce the risk from buying products that may not be “hot selling” items, b y adjusting return rates based upon popularity of an item. It can also be used to increase the switching costs of changing suppliers to “lock” customers in b y taking back unsold or defective merchandise quickly, while crediting the customer without dela y. Man y retailers and manufacturers have liber alized their return policies in recent years due to competitive pressures. One e-tailer, www.zappos.com , even encour – ages returns as a wa y to increase customer lo yalty. Many companies use reverse logistics to clean out customer inventories, so that they can purchase more new goods. That wa y, fresher inventories can demand better prices, which in turn, protects margin. Still others use reverse logistics as a form of “good corpor ate citizenship” using the process for altruistic reasons, such as philanthrop y. These activ – ities enhance the value of the br and and are a marketing incentive to pur – chase their products. There is also the opportunity to recapture value and recover assets as in some cases a large portion of bottom-line profits is derived from asset re – covery programs. The profit comes from materials that were previously discarded. Legal disposal issues can create a concern as landfill fees are increasing and the options for the disposal of hazardous material are decreasing. So legally disposing of non-salvageable materials becomes more difficult (and may be subject to fines if not done properly). [ Rogers and Tibben- Lembke, 1998 ] Reverse Logistics S ystem Design The success of reverse logistics system in achieving the desired objectives depends on the efficiency and effectiveness of a number of sub-systems. They are: Product Location The first step in the call back process is to identify the product location in the physical distribution system of the firm. Product location becomes more difficult after it is sold and handed over to the customer. It is a bit easier in the case of industrial or high value products due to the limited number of customers and personal inter action with the clients due to direct selling. Product Collection System Once the product location is identified, the collection mechanism gets into operation. This can be done either through compan y’s field force, channel members or third party . However, proper instructions have to be given to motivate the customer for returning the products. Third parties are often used if it is not an area of expertise for a compan y and the third party can do it cheaper and more efficiently. For example, “ Best Buy [a major electronics retailer] created a business unit…to focus on developing sales of consumer electronics into the sec – ondary mark ets…No longer was the handling of customer returns, return to vendor and overstock a cost center sitting in a dark corner, but now it was transformed into a profit center…at Best Buy , maximizing profit in the re – verse logistics business is involving partnerships with both new and exist – ing customers as well as manufacturers and third party service providers (3PSPs). Online stores & Auctions – with product testing, inventory management, listing, payment collection and order fulfillment, Best Buy has built an inte – grated supply chain to tak e returned product from the stores and resell it to its value-seeking customers through eBa y, a private online store and other online channels. Best Buy recently acquired Dealtree, its provider of these services. Trade-in, an online progr am was launched in 2007, offering customers a fast and easy alternative to selling online themselves, or just letting work – ing products sit in a drawer. It allows customers to recapture economic value, and through the Dealtree technology , Best Buy has instant access to current market value of products. Refurbishment – working with a variety of 3PSPs, Best Buy has been inte – grating refurbished products into its warr anty replacement program and selling direct to consumers. Recycling – in 2008, Best Buy began testing offering free recycling in sever al markets. They have been building up a network of local certified recyclers and plan to roll nationwide in 2009 .” [ Reverse Logistics Magazine Staff, 2009 ] Recycling or Disposal Centers These ma y be the compan y’s plants and warehouses or some fixed loca – tion in the reverse logistics network. The called back products are inspected before they are further processed for further repairs, refurbishing, remanufacturing or waste disposal. Investments in facilities for these activities depend on the objectives of the system, cost implication, complexity of the oper ations and expected gains. Documentation System Tracing the product location becomes easier if proper documentation is maintained at each channel level. However, at the time of handing over the product to the customer, the detailed information if collected through proper documentation, can form a good database that can be used in case of product call backs Reverse Logistics Challenges There are many challenges to running and maximizing the efficiency of the reverse logistics process. They include: Retailer – Manufacturer Conflict There may be inefficiencies in a reverse logistics process that can lengthen the time for processing returns such as the condition and value of the item and the timeliness of response. The buyer and seller have to develop a good working partnership to derive mutual benefit. Problem Returns and their S ymptoms Unprocessed returns are easy to observe but some of these other symp – toms are not as easily observed such as: Returns arriving faster than processing or disposal. Large amount of returns inventory held in the warehouse. Unidentified or unauthorized returns. Lengthy processing cycle times. Unknown total cost of the returns process. Customers have lost confidence in the repair activity . Lack of information about the reverse logistics process can result in the process being out of control. As the saying goes “if you aren’t measuring it, you can’t manage it”. Cause and Effect Poor data collection can lead to uncertainty about return causes. B y im – proving the return process, it is possible to decreases costs. It is important to be able to see defective product by problem code in an information sys – tem making it possible to track return issues. Reactive Response In recent years, government regulation or pressure from environmental agencies has forced companies to begin to focus on an area that is not one of their core competencies. It has not been possible to justify a large in – vestment in improving reverse logistics systems and capabilities. Some have been able to see it as a “win-win” game by developing strategies mentioned previously such as good corpor ate citizenship and recapturing value and recovering assets. Overall, in man y companies, there has been management inattention and the lack of importance of reverse logistics especially handling returns and non-salable items, resulting in restrictive policies in this regard. This ma y be in part due to not wanting their returns being used to cannibalize ex – isting sales. Recently, there seems to be a trend toward reducing or elimi – nating restrictive policies and attempting to handle returns more effec – tively in order to recover value from what can be a valuable resource. [Rogers and Tibben-Lembk e,1998 ] Managing Reverse Logistics A research team at the Reverse Logistics Executive Council [ Rogers and Tibben-Lembke,1998 ] identified key reverse logistics management ele – ments examined the return flow of product from a retailer back through the supply chain toward its original source, or to some other disposition (see Figure 10.2 ). Figure 10.2. Key Reverse Logistics Management Elements These elements, depending on how they are handled, can either posi – tively or negatively impact a compan y’s profitability . The elements are: Gatekeeping Gatekeeping is the screening of defective or unwarr anted returned mer – chandise at into the beginning of the reverse logistics process. It is the first critical factor to ensure that the entire reverse flow is both manageable and profitable. In the past, companies have put most re – sources into the forward logistics process and have given very little time and effort into the reverse process. While liberal return policies, lik e those at L.L. Bean, W almart and Target may dr aw customers, they can also encour age customer abuse such as the return of items lightly used for an event or one occasion. So it is important to have a solid gatek eeping process. For example, the electronic gaming compan y Nintendo will rebate retailers if they register the game player sold to the consumer at the point of sale. B y doing this, Nintendo and retailers can determine if the product is under warranty, and also if it is being returned inside the allowed time window . The im – pact pact from this new system on their bottom line was substantial: an 80% drop in return rates Compacting the Distribution Cycle Time One of the major goals of the reverse logistics process once an item has entered it is to reduce the amount of time to figure out what to do with re – turned products once they arrive. This includes return product decisions, movement, and processing. So it is important to know beforehand what to do with returned goods. When material often comes back in to a distribution center, it is not clear whether the items are: defective, can be reused, or refurbished, or need to be sent to a landfill. The challenge of running a distribution system in reverse is difficult…emplo yees have difficulty making decisions when the decision rules are not clearly stated and exceptions are often made. Reverse Logistics Information T echnology Systems One of the most serious problems that the companies face in the execu – tion of a reverse logistics is the scarcity of good information systems. T o work well, a flexible reverse logistics information system is required. The system should create a database at store level so that the retailer can begin tracking returned product and follow it all the wa y back through the supply chain. The information system should also include detailed information pro – grams about important reverse logistics measurements, such as returns rates, recovery r ates, and returns inventory turnover. Useful tools such as r adio frequency (RF) are helpful. New innovations such as two-dimensional bar code and r adio frequency identification li – cense plates (RFID) may soon be in use extensively . Centralized Return Centers (CR C) Having centralized return centers (CR C) can offer many benefits to an or – ganization, including: Consistency in disposition decisions and minimizes errors. A space saving advantage for retailers who want to dedicate as much of the shop floor to salable merchandise as possible Labor cost reductions due to their specialization, as CR C employees can typically handle returns more efficiently than retail clerks can. Transportation cost reductions as empty truckloads returning from store deliveries are used to pick up return merchandise. A convenient selling tool for the easy disposition of returned items. This can be an appealing service to retailers, and ma y be a deal-maker for ob – taining or retaining customers. Faster disposition times allow the compan y to obtain higher credits and refunds, as items stay idle for smaller periods of time, thus losing less value. Easier to identify trends in returns, which is an advantage to manufac – turer who can detect and fix quality problems sooner than if these re – turns were handled entirely b y customer service personnel. Zero Returns A company may have a progr am that does not accept returns from its cus – tomers. Rather, it gives the retailer an allowable return r ate, and pro – poses guidelines as to the proper disposition of the items. Such policies are usually accompanied by discounts for the retailer. This type of policy passes the returns responsibility onto the retailer, while reducing costs for the manufacturer or distributor. The drawback is that the manufacturer loses some control over its merchandise. Remanufacture and Refurbishment The advantage of remanufacturing and refurbishment is using reworked parts resulting in a cost savings. There are five categories of remanufacture and refurbishment: Make the product reusable for its intended purpose: 1) Repair 2) Refurbishing 3) Remanufacturing Retrieve reusable parts from old or brok en products: 4) Cannibalization Reuse parts of products for different purpose: 5) Recycling Asset Recovery Asset recovery is the classification and disposition of returned goods, sur – plus, obsolete, scrap, waste and excess material products, and other as – sets. It tries to maximize returns to the owner, while minimizing costs and liabilities for the dispositions. The objective of asset recovery is to recover as much of the economic (and ecological) value as is possible, thus reducing the final quantities of waste. This can be a good cash gener ating opportunity for companies who can sell these goods that would be otherwise end up in landfills. Negotiation Negotiation is a key element for all parties of the reverse logistics process. Because of the inherent lack of expertise on product returns, negotiations usually are informal and approached without formal pricing guidelines. Firms often do not maximize the residual value of returned product. Financial Management This is one of the most difficult parts of reverse logistic and also one of the most important. Returns are sometimes charged against sales. Sales department personnel may tend to fight returns and dela y them as much as possible. Accounts receivables are also impacted b y returns. Outsourcing As mentioned previously, reverse logistics is usually not a core compe – tence of the firm. In man y cases, it may make more sense for the firm to outsource their reverse logistics functions than k eep those in-house. Reverse Logistics and the Environment In the past, most companies were concerned primarily with the forward logistics processes and to some degree as it relates to returning product to their suppliers. Today, man y companies also have a focus on reverse lo – gistics issues because of environmental concerns and as was mentioned before, how it can both add value to the customer and to the bottom line. Now and into the future, environmental consider ations will have a greater impact on many logistics decisions. Supply Chain Sustainability As a result of this shifting focus, the term “supply chain sustainability” has become fairly common and refers to the management of environ – mental, social and economic impacts, and good governance pr actices, throughout the lifecycles of goods and services. The objective of supply chain sustainability is to create, protect and grow long-term environmental, social and economic value for all stakeholders involved in bringing products and services to market. Green Logistics Another term has emerged as a result called “green logistics” which refers to minimizing the ecological impact of logistics. An example of which is a reduction in the energy usage of logistics activities and reduc – tion in the usage of materials. Reducing the “carbon footprint” in a supply chain is a sustainability priority for logistics. Environmental considerations have a greater impact on man y logistics decisions. For example, man y products can no longer be placed in land – fills and as a result, man y companies must take back their products at the end of their useful lifetime. At the same time, there is a decrease of land – fill availability resulting in an increase in landfill costs. Many products are banned from being placed in a landfill either because they present a health risk, such as cathode r ay tubes (CR Ts) in old TV’ s and computer monitors, or because they tak e up too much space. Products that are banned from landfills include: motor oil, household bat – teries, household appliances, paper products, tires, and some medical and electrical equipment. Product bans represent a new reverse logistics op – portunity as when companies are forced to tak e their products back when they are banned they reuse the products and recapture their value. The firm is also looked upon as an environmentally friendly compan y. Man y companies such as Hewlett-Packard and Xerox have adopted an Extended Product Responsibility (EPR) progr am which focuses on the to – tal life of the product, looking for ways to prevent pollution and reduce resource and energy usage through the product’ s life cycle. Programs and processes lik e “product take back” and EPR are part of a strategy that has become known as “closed loop supply chains” that are designed and managed to encompass both forward and reverse flows ac – tivities in a supply chain. The reverse logistics activities of reuse, remanufacturing, refurbishing, and recycling have become to be known as the “four R’s” of sustainability . The R’s, while different, are now being used b y many organizations to – gether in a broad progr am where they compliment to each other. Other examples of companies using “green” concepts in supply chain to their advantage include: Wal-Mart, which anticipates its goal of a 5 percent reduction in packaging by 2013 will produce $3.4 billion in direct savings and roughly $11 billion in savings across the supply chain. Johnson & Johnson’ s energy efficiency progr am resulted in an estimated $30 million in annualized savings over the 10 years prior to the company’s 2006 sustainability report. Nestlé, through a combination of packaging source reduction, re-use, recy – cling, and energy recovery , saved $510 million, worldwide, between 1991 and 2006. [ Futin, 2010 ] The emergence of global supply chains has presented challenges, risks and opportunities for both forward and reverse flows including environ – mental or “green” laws, which is the topic of our next chapter.