Sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents, incompatibility of

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         Part 3: minimum 3 pages

   

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Part 1: Capstone

Topic: Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Adolescents

PICOT question:   Can the implementation of a 2-month program in schools in Miami on sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents aged 14 to 17 years improve their knowledge about the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases compared to their knowledge before the program’s implementation?

Tool: Survey and informal observation

1. Implementation/Conclusion (One paragraph)

a. Implement the change you are proposing- This should be a continuation of Part I and Part II (Check files)

2. Describe the practice change (One paragraph)

a. Place: Schools

b. Participants: Adolescents

3. Discuss how you would implement and assess the change (Three paragraphs)

a. Time frame

b. Setting

c. Participants

d. Barriers

e. External and internal factors.

4. How would you evaluate the change process? (One paragraph)

b. How would you measure or evaluate? income survey and out come survey

c. Is there a tool to measure?: Survey and informal observation

5. The literature review must support your change and  implementation. (One paragraph)

a. Use leadership qualities and skills that will be utilized for successful completion of the project.

6. Discuss who will be invited to the proposal (One paragraph)

a. Who are the stakeholders?

b. How will you present the information to your stakeholders? 

7. Conclusion (One paragraph)

a. The conclusion should have your Part I, II, II all put together in a thorough (Check file)

The number of words in each paragraph should be similar

Part 2: Capstone

Topic:  Incompatibility of Intravenous Medications

PICOT question:   Is it possible that the rate of errors due to incompatibility of intravenous medications is reduced by implementing a training program for ICU nurses for 8 weeks, compared to the rate of errors before training?

Tool: Survey and informal observation

1. Implementation/Conclusion (One paragraph)

a. Implement the change you are proposing- This should be a continuation of Part I and Part II (Check files)

2. Describe the practice change (One paragraph)

a. Place: ICU unit

b. Participants: ICU nurses

3. Discuss how you would implement and assess the change (Three paragraphs)

a. Time frame

b. Setting

c. Participants

d. Barriers

e. External and internal factors.

4. How would you evaluate the change process? (One paragraph)

b. How would you measure or evaluate? income survey and out come survey

c. Is there a tool to measure?: Survey and informal observation

5. The literature review must support your change and  implementation. (One paragraph)

a. Use leadership qualities and skills that will be utilized for successful completion of the project.

6. Discuss who will be invited to the proposal (One paragraph)

a. Who are the stakeholders?

b. How will you present the information to your stakeholders? 

7. Conclusion (One paragraph)

a. The conclusion should have your Part I, II, II all put together in a thorough (Check file)

Part 3: Capstone

Topic:  Turnover Rates due to Burnout in Healthcare

PICOT question:    Is it possible that in multiple settings, the turnover rate due to burnout is reduced after implementing a mental health program for nurses for 10 weeks, compared to the nurses’ turnover rate before the program? 

Tool: Survey and informal observation

1. Implementation/Conclusion (One paragraph)

a. Implement the change you are proposing- This should be a continuation of Part I and Part II (Check files)

2. Describe the practice change (One paragraph)

a. Place: multiple settings

b. Participants: Nurses

3. Discuss how you would implement and assess the change (Three paragraphs)

a. Time frame

b. Setting

c. Participants

d. Barriers

e. External and internal factors.

4. How would you evaluate the change process? (One paragraph)

b. How would you measure or evaluate? income survey and out come survey

c. Is there a tool to measure?: Survey and informal observation

5. The literature review must support your change and  implementation. (One paragraph)

a. Use leadership qualities and skills that will be utilized for successful completion of the project.

6. Discuss who will be invited to the proposal (One paragraph)

a. Who are the stakeholders?

b. How will you present the information to your stakeholders? 

7. Conclusion (One paragraph)

a. The conclusion should have your Part I, II, II all put together in a thorough (Check file)

2

Turnover Rates due to Burnout in Healthcare

Review of Literature

High turnover rates as a result of nurse burnout are a major issue in healthcare that needs to be resolved. Kelly et al. (2021) established that burnout can be addressed by improving resilience through mental health awareness and mindfulness-based stress reduction to address nurses’ turnover. The article provided high-quality evidence as the conclusions made were definitive and supported by the data provided. The evidence is applicable to the PICOT question as it supports improvement in mental well-being could reduce burnout and turnover. The findings are consistent with those of other studies (Kwon et al., 2021). The major difference was the methodologies used to collect data as Kelly et al. (2021) obtained patient data from health databases while Kwon et al. (2021) used anonymous online surveys. The controversy in the article is that it does rule out the contribution of other factors in improving nurses’ resilience.

In another study, Kwon et al. (2021) associated burnout with turnover intention and suggested that nurses’ turnover intention could be mitigated by improving their mental health. The article provides low-quality evidence as the sample size is insufficient for the study. The findings can be applied to the PICOT question to address nurse turnover. The evidence provided in the article is supported by other studies that associate burnout and nurses’ intention to leave (Chen et al., 2019). The similarities between the studies included the methodology as they were both cross-sectional studies and some of the variables in the studies. The difference identified included the location of the studies as one was conducted in Korea and the other in Taiwan (Chen et al., 2019; Kwon et al., 2021). There was no controversy identified in the study.

However, Tununu and Martin (2020) established that psychiatric nurses did not suffer from burnout because they had low emotional exhaustion. The article provides low-quality evidence that cannot be generalized as it was conducted in one psychiatric hospital, and the evidence varied from that of other studies (Scanlan & Still, 2019). The evidence applies to the PICOT question as it provides an alternative view of the existence of burnout among psychiatric nurses. The similarity between the articles is that they were single-site studies The differences noted include the geographical location and the participants’ response rates since one had 100% and the other 25% response rate (Scanlan & Still, 2019; Tununu & Martin, 2020). The controversy identified is the sufficiency of the sample size yet the findings were inconsistent with those of other studies.

Research indicates that there is an inter-correlation between turnover intention and burnout (Scanlan & Still, 2019). The evidence provided was of high quality as the findings were supported by data from the study. The findings are applicable to the PICOT question to provide a solution to the issue of turnover by developing strategies to reduce burnout. The evidence is similar to the findings of Chen et al. (2019). However, the major difference between the studies was that Chen et al. (2019) investigated burnout as a mediating factor influencing turnover intention among nurses with high patient-nurse ratios. The controversy that exists in the articles is the different measurements of turnover intention (Chen et al., 2019; Scanlan & Still, 2019).

Wei et al. (2022) established that burnout was prevalent among nurses in delivery and peri-operative settings. The article provided high-quality evidence as the conclusions were supported by the results of the study. The evidence is applicable to the PICOT question since the researchers recommended the need to improve burnout symptoms and nurses’ physical and mental health. The findings are consistent with the evidence in other studies that associated work-related stress and increased burnout in nurses (Karimi et al., 2022). The difference noted is the location of the study as Wei et al. (2022) was conducted at a single site and the other in two hospitals (Karimi et al., 2022). No controversy has been identified in the study.

Karimi et al. (2019) found that some elements of burnout influenced turnover intention such as a personal accomplishment. The quality of the evidence provided was affected by the small sample size, which could have influenced the results, but the study was conducted in multiple settings, which improves the generalizability of the findings. However, the evidence is related to the PICOT question as the authors recommended monitoring nurses’ mental health to prevent the effects of burnout such as turnover. Other researchers have also identified burnout as a common problem among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic (Maunder et al., 2022). The two studies were conducted in multiple settings. The studies were conducted in two different geographical locations. The controversial information in the article is that work position was the highest predictor of the intention to leave.

In their study, Maunder et al. (2022) found that nurses experienced high levels of burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings were consistent and generalizable and can be applied to the PICOT question to address the problem of nurse turnover due to burnout by helping nurses cope with work-related stressors such as COVID-19. A similar study conducted by Karimi et al. (2019) had similar findings where data was collected through surveys. The differences identified include the setting, and the measures of burnout used. No controversies were identified in the study.

There are some other elements of burnout such as client-based and personal burnout that influence the intention to leave among nurses (Chen et al., 2019). The quality of the evidence was supported by the statistical data and the sample was sufficient. The findings provide important information for answering the PICOT question by reducing burnout to address nurses’ intention to quit their jobs. Similar findings were provided by Kwon et al. (2021). But the difference is that Chen et al. (2019) used a large sample from multiple settings and conducted the study in one setting. No controversial information was identified from the study.

Kowalczuk et al. (2020) associated burnout symptoms with working excessively, which increased nurses’ tendency to frequently take sick leave. The evidence was consistent with the data provided and was correctly interpreted. The sample size was sufficient for generalization and the study was conducted in multiple sites. The evidence can be used to answer the PICOT question since the researchers explained that burnout and excessive work affect employees’ mental health. Therefore, reducing workload could reduce burnout and prevent nurses from leaving. The similarity identified with the other articles include the research design; But differed in the data collection procedure as the authors applied paper-questionnaires Kowalczuk et al. (2020), other than online surveys (Maunder et al., 2022; Wei et al., 2022).

Rudman et al. (2020) associated nurse burnout with various mental health problems such as insomnia, depressive symptoms, and cognitive problems. The article provided high-quality evidence as the sample size was sufficient and the results were consistent and generalizable. The findings apply to the PICOT question since improving nurses’ mental health would prevent them from such problems and could be overwhelmed by the demands of their careers. The evidence is consistent with other studies that identified the association between burnout and mental health issues (Maunder et al., 2022). However, the study involved nursing students while the others mostly focused on nurses and other healthcare professionals (Kowalczuk et al., 2020; Maunder et al., 2022).

PICOT question support

Burnout is a major issue among nurses that should be addressed to prevent nurse turnover. Current research indicates a significant association between burnout and nurses’ intention to quit their jobs to seek other opportunities. Studies have suggested that addressing burnout could help reduce nurses’ intention to leave their careers or positions by improving their resilience (Kelly et al., 2021). Burnout is associated with increased psychological distress (Maunder et al., 2021), and low satisfaction with their jobs (Scanlan & Still, 2019).

It is important to note that the relationship between nurse turnover and burnout can be influenced by other factors such as workload, which may not independently affect nurse turnover. The PICOT question seeks to establish whether improving mental health and well-being could address the problem of nurse turnover. Available evidence indicates the need to create strategies to reduce burnout and improve nurses’ job satisfaction to reduce their intentions to leave (Scanlan & Still, 2019). Strategies to help nurses cope with stressors in the workplace could reduce nurses’ burnout and turnover intentions by enhancing personal accomplishment and reducing emotional exhaustion (Karimi et al., 2019).

Practice Change

To address the problem of the high turnover rate of nurses affected by burnout, implementing a mental health program to reduce burnout can help nurses to cope with job-related stress. Kelly et al. (2021) identified improving employee well-being as essential in preventing nurses from leaving their positions or units. Tununu and Martin (2020) explained that promoting open communication and resources could help reduce burnout among nurses and provide a safe working environment. It is important to identify and prevent factors that lead to nurse burnout to successfully prevent nurses from the intention to leave, especially when faced with critical situations (Karimi et al., 2019).


Objective

The project change aims to reduce the nurse turnover rate caused by burnout by providing nurses with a program that will improve their mental health. When the nurses’ mental health is improved, it would be easy to cope with stressors that arise in the workplace and prevent them from burnout and subsequently intentions to quit. The intervention will protect not only nurses from harm but also patients since burnout is associated with psychological distress which threatens patients’ safety (Maunder et al., 2022). Improving nurses’ mental health would translate to improved patient outcomes.

Problem

The problem of nurse turnover resulting from burnout is common among nurses working in busy and understaffed units. There is a relationship between a high workload and increased burnout, which is a predictor of high turnover (Chen et al., 2019). Nurses are more likely to be overwhelmed when they ate overworked Therefore, there is a need to improve nurses’ ability to cope with the stress that arises due to high workloads and help them to be more resilient. Nursing is a challenging profession that is faced with many challenges such as staffing shortages and nurses are bound to find themselves in difficult situations; thus, have to be mentally strong.

Current state of problem

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses have been faced with relentless pressure to care for many patients. The pro of the problem is the increasing demand for nurses as the opportunities for front-line workers have increased as more nurses leave the profession to seek other opportunities. However, the negative part of the problem is that many healthcare institutions still need to hire more nurses as they still struggle to properly compensate the existing workforce putting more pressure on the remaining workforce. Hospitals have been faced with the challenge of managing their costs and providing quality care (Chen et al., 2019).

Strengths and weaknesses of review of literature

The major strength of Kelly et al. (2021) was a sufficient sample size and consistent results, while the limitation was the fixed times of data collection. In Kwon et al. (2021), the main strength was the relevance of the article to the PICOT question, while the weakness was that it was a single-site study, which limited its generalizability. The main strength of Tununu and Martin (2020) was a sufficient sample size but was conducted in a single hospital. In Scanlan and Still (2019), the main strength was the consistency of the findings but lacked a random sample. Wei et al. (2022) provided consistent findings from a sufficient sample size but only focused on peri-operative units of one hospital.

Karimi et al. (2019) provided consistent findings, but the sample size was small and relied on self-reported data, which can be biased. The main strength of Maunder et al. (2022) was the study design that allowed for follow-up, but there was a high drop-out, which created an opportunity for bias. Chen et al. (2019) had a sufficient sample size for the study, but the model may not be used with other mediators. In Kowalczuk et al. (2020), the main strength was that the hypothesis was confirmed, and the major weakness was the cross-sectional study design and self-reported data, which can be biased. Lastly, Rudman et al. (2020) had a sufficient sample size from different settings, and the major weakness was the over-reliance on self-reported data.

References

Chen, Y. C., Guo, Y. L. L., Chin, W. S., Cheng, N. Y., Ho, J. J., & Shiao, J. S. C. (2019). Patient–nurse ratio is related to nurses’ intention to leave their job through mediating factors of burnout and job dissatisfaction.
International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(23), 4801. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234801

Karimi, L., Raei, M., & Parandeh, A. (2022). Association between dimensions of professional burnout and turnover intention among nurses working in hospitals during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Iran based on structural model.
Frontiers in public health, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.86026

Kelly, L. A., Gee, P. M., & Butler, R. J. (2021). Impact of nurse burnout on organizational and position turnover.
Nursing outlook, 69(1), 96-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2020.06.008.

Kowalczuk, K., Krajewska-Kułak, E., & Sobolewski, M. (2020). Working excessively and burnout among nurses in the context of sick leaves.
Frontiers in psychology, 11, 285. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00285

Kwon, C. Y., Lee, B., Kwon, O. J., Kim, M. S., Sim, K. L., & Choi, Y. H. (2021). Emotional labor, burnout, medical error, and turnover intention among South Korean nursing staff in a University Hospital setting.
International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(19), 10111. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910111

Maunder, R. G., Heeney, N. D., Hunter, J. J., Strudwick, G., Jeffs, L. P., Ginty, L., … & Wiesenfeld, L. A. (2022). Trends in burnout and psychological distress in hospital staff over 12 months of the COVID-19 pandemic: a prospective longitudinal survey.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 17(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12995-022-00352-4

Scanlan, J. N., & Still, M. (2019). Relationships between burnout, turnover intention, job satisfaction, job demands and job resources for mental health personnel in an Australian mental health service.
BMC health services research, 19(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3841-z

Tununu, A. F., & Martin, P. (2020). Prevalence of burnout among nurses working at a psychiatric hospital in the Western Cape.
Curationis, 43(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v43i1.2117

Wei, H., Aucoin, J., Kuntapay, G. R., Justice, A., Jones, A., Zhang, C., … & Hall, L. A. (2022). The prevalence of nurse burnout and its association with telomere length pre and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Plos one, 17(3), e0263603. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263603

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1

High nurse turnover is one of the major issues that nurse leaders and hospital management face. High nurse turnover has a significant negative impact on nurse leaders, hospital managers, nurses, patients, doctors, and the entire healthcare system (Bae, 2022). (i) There are several reasons for high nurse turnover rates among which is burnout which causes physical and mental strain on nurses forcing them to leave their jobs. Nurse turnover forces hospitals to spend more resources hiring and training new nurses and affects the overall morale of nurses and increases the burden of heavy workload as the remaining nurses have to cover the gap left by others (Bae, 2022). The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of high nurse turnover on nurses’ mental health and how a ten-week mental health program implemented based on Orem’s self-care theory can reduce the rate of this turnover.

The rate of turnover for registered nurses is approximately 26.8 % in the U.S. and the rate of turnover for new graduate nurses is 18.1% with 17.1% of new nurses leaving their jobs within the first year of employment (Zhao et al., 2018). High turnover rate caused by burnout is a major nursing issue that negatively affects nurse motivation and mental health and therefore should be properly addressed (Bae, 2022). The purpose of the ten-week mental program is to reduce the impact of turnover rates caused by burnout on nurses’ mental health, therefore, reducing the rate of turnover. (f) The program will address nurses’ mental health wellness and help them cope with work-related stress which causes burnout.

Turnover Rates due to Burnout in Healthcare

PICOT question

The PICOT question evaluates whether a mental health program can help reduce the nurse turnover rate in comparison to the rate of turnover before the program. The intervention aims to address high nurse turnover caused by burnout. The population in this intervention is the critical care nursing staff, the intervention is implementing a mental health program, the comparison is the rate of turnover before the program, the outcome is a reduced nurse turnover rate and the time is ten weeks.

Population

The vulnerable populations to high nurse turnover rate due to burnout are critical care nurses as they are exposed to high stress work. The heavy workloads of critical care nurses as a result of the high nurse-patient ratio affects nurses mentally and physically. Due to the high turnover rate, nurses’ performance level reduces increasing the risk of medical errors because they are overworked and their commitment and motivation are adversely affected forcing them to consider leaving their jobs (Kaddourah et al., 2018). Various risk factors increase turnover rates such as unfavorable work environment, job dissatisfaction, salaries and compensations, communication barriers, and high nurse-patient ratio.

According to Kim and Kim (2021), a high nurse-to-patient ratio is one of the major causes of burnout that directly leads to a high turnover. When there is a high turnover rate, nurses have to take additional shifts and take up heavy workloads to cover the gap left by other nurses. A high nurse-patient ratio impacts patient safety adversely and leads to low-quality services as nurses are often exhausted mentally affecting their well-being. According to Dewanto and Wardhani (2021), an unfavorable work environment causes approximately 10% of the turnover rate. When nurses work in a stressful environment with limited resources to perform their duties, they are more inclined to leave their jobs to pursue better options leading to a high turnover rate.

Nursing research

According to Lockhart (2020), improving the nurse-to-patient ratio is an effective intervention that reduces turnover rates caused by burnout. The research conducted by American Medical Association shows that hospitals with a low nurse-to-patient ratio (4:1) have a high nurse retention rate compared to those with a high nurse-to-patient ratio (8:1) (Lockhart, 2020). Reducing the 8:1 nurse-to-patient ratio by half reduces the rate of turnover due burnouts by approximately 25% (Lockhart, 2020). According to Lockhart (2020), over four patients per nurse increases nurse burnout by 23% affecting the mental health of nurses with heavy workloads. This intervention requires a hospital to incur additional expenses to hire more nursing staff.

According to Luo et al. (2019), one effective strategy for reducing the high turnover rate caused by burnout is implementing support groups where nurses can voice their concerns and gain emotional and mental support. These support groups help nurses cope with the pressure that comes with their demanding nursing practice. Nursing support groups are important as they teach better scheduling, discuss well-being and overall nurses’ health and provide safe respite areas for nursing staff. According to Luo et al. (2019), support groups help nurses find self-care techniques that improve their mental health and prevent or reduce burnout therefore indirectly reducing the turnout rate.

Proposal

Implementing a mental health program can reduce the turnover rate caused by burnout among critical care nurses. When implementing this program, there are numerous resources required. The intervention would allow nurses to examine their mental well-being and take care of their health. It also gives nurses insight into how to deal with the pressures and challenges of the nursing profession. When implemented effectively, this intervention has the potential to reduce nurse burnout because it addresses all stakeholders involved and who work with nurses such as doctors, nurse leaders, and other clinicians.


Resources

These resources include a printed guide to help nurses cope with burnout, online support forums, training courses, a venue, therapy platforms, a computer, a tablet or a projector, and a thought record diary among others (Lockhart, 2020). (i) The individuals that would be involved in implementing this intervention are hospital managers, nurse leaders, nurses, and other physicians such as doctors and psychiatrists. (ii) Nurse can play an advanced role in ensuring that this intervention is implemented effectively to reduce the rate of turnover that leads to nursing staff shortages. Nurses with advanced skills are able to provide leadership, and use their critical thinking skills to solve problems that may arise during the program. (iii) The program is expected to run for ten weeks upon implementation where the rate of turnover after the mental health program will be compared to the turnover rate before the implementation of this intervention to determine its effectiveness.

Orem’s self-care theory

Orem’s self-care theory is the ideal nursing theory that one cause use as a foundation when implementing this intervention. According to Dorothea Orem, the founder of Orem’s self-care theory nurses should be responsible for their care, be self-reliant and provide quality care to patients who need their services (Khademian et al., 2020). This theory is best-suited in dealing with burnout which causes a high turnover rate as nurses have to be responsible for their care including mental well-being first before they can offer their best to their patients. this theory requires nurses to maintain autonomy, benevolence, nonmaleficence, and justice on themselves before they can do the same for their patients. self-care in form of mental health program helps nurses cope with burnout and therefore reduces the turnover rate.

High turnover rate negatively impacts patient care, therefore, affecting patients’ quality of life. It also adversely affects the cost of care as patients are forced to spend a long time in hospitals. High nurse turnover also affects hospital managers who have to spend a significant amount of time screening new nurses who have high qualifications and skills that suit the hospital’s needs (Zhao et al., 2018). A high nurse turnover rate is also costly to patients and hospitals as the former incur additional medical costs due to low-quality patient care and prolonged hospital stay while the latter spends more on training new nurses, hiring additional nursing staff, and providing incentives to retain experienced nurses.

References

Bae, S. H. (2022). Noneconomic and economic impacts of nurse turnover in hospitals: A systematic review. 
International Nursing Review
69(3), 392-404.
https://doi.org/10.1111/inr.12769

Dewanto, A., Febrina, S. S., & Wardhani, V. (2020). The importance of nurses’ cognitive and emotional engagement in developing hospital quality culture. 
Enfermería Clínica
30, 97-101.

Kaddourah, B., Abu-Shaheen, A. K., & Al-Tannir, M. (2018). Quality of nursing work life and turnover intention among nurses of tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh: A cross-sectional survey. 
BMC Nursing
17(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-018-0312-0

Khademian, Z., Ara, F. K., & Gholamzadeh, S. (2020). The effect of self-care education based on orem’s nursing theory on quality of life and self-efficacy in patients with hypertension: a quasi-experimental study. 
International Journal of Community-Based Nursing and Midwifery
8(2), 140. https://doi.org/
10.30476/IJCBNM.2020.81690.0

Kim, H., & Kim, E. G. (2021). A meta‐analysis on predictors of turnover intention of hospital nurses in South Korea (2000–2020). 
Nursing Open
8(5), 2406-2418. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.872

Lockhart, L. (2020). Strategies to reduce nursing turnover. 
Nursing Made Incredibly Easy
18(2), 56.
https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NME.0000653196.16629.2e

Luo, Y. H., Li, H., Plummer, V., Cross, W. M., Lam, L., Guo, Y. F., … & Zhang, J. P. (2019). An evaluation of a positive psychological intervention to reduce burnout among nurses. 
Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
33(6), 186-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2019.08.004

Zhao, Y., Russell, D. J., Guthridge, S., Ramjan, M., Jones, M. P., Humphreys, J. S., & Wakerman, J. (2018). Cost impact of high staff turnover on primary care in remote Australia. 
Australian Health Review
43(6), 689-695.
https://doi.org/10.1071/AH17262

7

Sexually transmitted diseases are infections that are spread from one individual to another through sexual activities (Rhodes et al., 2021). Examples include syphilis, human papillomavirus, gonorrhea, and genital herpes. Due to poor testing knowledge, speaking openly about sexual things, and young girls’ susceptibility to STDs, adolescents and teenagers are more likely to develop STDs.Even though STDs can affect any population, adolescents and young adults are at increased risk of having STDs. STDs have undeniable effects on individuals, communities, and healthcare sectors. Adolescents and teenagers need to be educated on STDs, especially on how to prevent the spread and the importance of treatment. Teenage STD infection rates are rising globally, and gonorrhea and chlamydia are the most frequent STDs among teens in the United States. In the 2016 STD study, teenagers aged 15 to 19 had a male prevalence of 15.3% and a female prevalence of 4.1% for chlamydia (Shannon & Klausner, 2018). STDs among adolescents are a problem because increased rates of infections increase the health burden of a state. This paper focuses on the impact a 2-month program can have on the knowledge and understanding of adolescents aged 14-17 years about STDs.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Adolescents

PICOT question

Can the implementation of a 2-month program on sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents aged 14 to 17 years improve their knowledge about the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases compared to their knowledge before the program’s implementation?

The population of focus is adolescents aged 14-17 who are vied to be at increased risk of having STDs because of insufficient knowledge (Shannon & Klausner, 2018). A 2-month program on STDs is seen as the fit intervention for this population. The comparison intervention is the knowledge of this population before having the intervention. After the assessment, the outcome is expected that this population will show increased knowledge in understanding the topic of STDs. The program timing is two months, which is considered reliable and enough time for the education program.

Vulnerable populations

Some of the social determinants for STD among adolescents include age, ethnicity, and family background. School characteristics and neighborhood factors are also considered important in the acquisition of STDs by adolescents. The risk factors of STDs among adolescents include practicing sexual relations at an early age or practicing unprotected sex, being shy to take about one’s sex life, having a history of STDs or HIV, and lack of regular STD tests for those who engage in sexual relations (Ayerdi Aguirrebengoa et al., 2020). Also, misuse of drugs can lead someone to engage in improper sexual behaviors that increase the risks of having STDs.

Ayerdi Aguirrebengoa et al. (2020) assessed the risk factors associated with STDs/HIV among adolescents in Madrid. The authors found that the prevalence of STD/HIV was high among adolescents, and the leading risk factors in their study were to having sexual relations at an early age and having a history of STD. Rusley et al. (2022) assessed the trends in risk behaviors and STDs among youths who showed up in STD clinics in the U.S from 2013 to 2017. In conclusion, the high numbers of STDs among these youths were mostly associated with engaging in unprotected sex and having multiple partners.

Research intervention

Kam et al. (2019) conducted a project that aimed at increasing the knowledge of adolescents on sexual health and sexual practices through an educational intervention in Cambodia. The program effectively promoted sexual knowledge among adolescents of both sexes at risks of STDs and informed the general public in Cambodia. The education was aimed at improving the sexual behavior of adolescents and young adults, especially in areas with low literacy rates and poorly accessibility. Knowledge improvement can be effective in helping adolescents make better sexual health decisions and reduce their chances of being infected with STDs (Kam et al., 2019).

Wilkins et al. (2022) discussed the importance of a school-based program model devised by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Adolescent and School Health used to inform adolescents about STDs, risk behaviors, and unwanted pregnancies. The authors established that the model is good for adolescents and adolescent health professionals working in schools. Sexual health education can be effective in creating a safe and supportive environment for children to stay healthy. The authors concluded that increasing access to education programs on adolescents can promote the sexual health and well-being of adolescents (Wilkins et al., 2022).

Proposal

An educational intervention among adolescents can help reduce the risk factors of STDs, thus reducing the unwanted effects of STDs (Rusley et al., 2022). A 2-month training program on STD is the proposed intervention for this paper. The population at risk of STDs is identified as adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. The educational program will be infused together with the school curriculum and taught life skills by healthcare professionals and the relevant teachers. At the end of the program, individuals who wish to be tested for STDs will receive free testing as part of the educational intervention. This will encourage the trainees to engage freely with their care providers on sexual matters.

The interdisciplinary team that will be included in the implementation of this intervention include physician specialists in reproductive health and sex education, advanced nurse practitioners, certified nurses (Wilkins et al., 2022), and life skill and biology teachers in the respective setting (school). Physician specialists on reproductive health and sex specialists will cover the topics of STDs broadly. Nurse practitioners and certified nurses will help answer any questions the trainees have and help do the STD testing. Teachers will oversee the activities of their students during the program and gather knowledge for the next classes they will teach on matters of reproductive and sexual health.

A nurse in an advanced role has the required knowledge to see the intervention program through successfully. Nurses are supposed to be the key educators on matters of health and health promotion (Santa Maria, 2018). In this intervention, the nurse in an advanced role is regarded as important to help the specialists provide knowledge to the students effectively. The proposed intervention will be executed in 2 months. This time is enough to engage the trainee in both theoretical and practical knowledge concerning STDs and the importance of protecting their health.

Health Belief Model (HBM)

Health belief model (HBM) as a theoretical perspective was devised to help improve public health by providing guidance through ways of promoting health and preventing diseases (Ghorbani-Dehbalaei et al., 2021). The theory is mostly used to predict and explain changes in health behaviors by individuals. It is also utilized to evaluate and understand health behaviors among populations as well as individuals (Ghorbani-Dehbalaei et al., 2021). In this project, HBM will guide the training program as an intervention to promote sexual health and prevent the spread of STDs among adolescents. Considering that HBM can enhance the implementation of the intervention by influencing the health behaviors of adolescents. Implementation of the project using HBM will result in positive impacts on healthcare systems. The adolescent population will be knowledgeable, which will decrease the disease burden in communities and improve health outcomes for individuals. Those infected with STDs will seek the appropriate care to promote their health, while those not infected will be cautious of their behaviors and create awareness (Gogineni et al., 2021). The cost of care will be reduced as individuals will implement ways of preventing STDs. Quality of life will be improved with better health outcomes as individuals will maintain healthy sexual lives and reduce STD infections among adolescents.

References

Ayerdi Aguirrebengoa, O., Vera Garcia, M., Rueda Sanchez, M., D Elia, G., Chavero Méndez, B., Alvargonzalez Arrancudiaga, M., Bello León, S., Puerta López, T., Clavo Escribano, P., Ballesteros Martín, J., Menendez Prieto, B., Fuentes, M. E., García Lotero, M., Raposo Utrilla, M., Rodríguez Martín, C., & Del Romero Guerrero, J. (2020). Risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections and HIV among adolescents in a reference clinic in Madrid. 
PloS one
15(3), e0228998.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0228998

Ghorbani-Dehbalaei, M., Loripoor, M., & Nasirzadeh, M. (2021). The role of health beliefs and health literacy in women’s health promoting behaviours based on the health belief model: a descriptive study. 
BMC women’s health
21(1), 421.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01564-2

Gogineni, V., Waselewski, M. E., Jamison, C. D., Bell, J. A., Hadler, N., Chaudhry, K. A., Chang, T., & Mmeje, O. O. (2021). The future of STI screening and treatment for youth: a National Survey of youth perspectives and intentions. 
BMC public health
21(1), 2006. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-12091-y

Kam, J., Wong, L. K., & Fu, K. (2019). Creation of sexually transmitted diseases education program for young adults in rural Cambodia. 
Frontiers in public health
7, 50.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00050

Rhodes, S. D., Daniel-Ulloa, J., Wright, S. S., Mann-Jackson, L., Johnson, D. B., Hayes, N. A., & Valentine, J. A. (2021). Critical elements of community engagement to address disparities and related social determinants of health: the centers of disease control and prevention community approaches to reducing sexually transmitted disease initiative. 
Sexually transmitted diseases
48(1), 49. https://doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001267

Rusley, J. C., Tao, J., Koinis-Mitchell, D., Rosenthal, A. E., Montgomery, M. C., Nunez, H., & Chan, P. A. (2022). Trends in risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections among youth presenting to a sexually transmitted infection clinic in the United States, 2013–2017.
International journal of STD & AIDS,
33(7), 634.
https://doi.org/10.1177/09564624221077785

Santa Maria, D. (2018). Feasibility and efficacy of a student nurse-delivered, parent-based sexual health curriculum in underserved communities: A pilot randomized-controlled trial. 
Pediatric Nursing
44(1).

Shannon, C., & Klausner, J. (2018). The growing epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: A neglected population.
Current opinion in pediatrics,
30(1), 137. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000578

Wilkins, N. J., Rasberry, C., Liddon, N., Szucs, L. E., Johns, M., Leonard, S., Goss, S. J., & Oglesby, H. (2022). Addressing HIV/Sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy prevention through schools: An approach for strengthening education, health services, and school environments that promote adolescent sexual health and well-being.
Journal of Adolescent Health,
70(4), 540-549.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.05.017

2

Incompatibility of Intravenous Medications

Review of Literature

Errors associated with incompatible intravenous (IV) drugs among patients aged 65 years or more patients in ICU. Srisram et al. (2020) established that intravenous drug incompatibilities in ICU can be reduced by establishing pharmaceutical guidelines for administering IV drugs. The article provides high-quality evidence supported by results from 104 medication charts and analyzed through the Micromedex healthcare series. The evidence provided by this article applies to the PICOT question because supports pharmaceutical guidelines when administering IV drugs or reducing the rate of incompatibilities in the ICU. The finding is similar to those of other studies (Ertuna et al., 2019). The differences between the two studies were in data collection with Srisram et al. obtaining data from medical charts while Ertuna et al. (2019) obtained data from pharmacist medication review reports. There is no controversy in this article.

Machotka et al. (2015) identify real incidences of IV drug incompatibilities in the ICU and suggest that adhering to a few simple rules of IV drug administration can reduce these incidences. The article provided good-quality evidence as the conclusions revealed the prevalence of real-life incompatibility incidences in the ICU and were supported by the results obtained from the study conducted. The evidence is compatible with the PICOT question because it reveals that the rate of errors caused by the incompatibility of IV drugs is high. The findings are consistent with those of Fedaku et al. (2017). The major difference between the two studies is the type of data collected with Machotka et al. 2017 focusing on intravenous drug incompatibility errors while Fedaku et al. 2017 focusing on intravenous drug errors caused by wrong or missed doses. There is no controversy in this article.

Fekadu et al. (2017) associate intravenous drug errors with clinical complications that lead to undesirable results that can be prevented. The article provides good-quality evidence that leads to the conclusion that wrong or missed dose medication errors are prevalent in the emergency and intensive care units. The evidence applies to the PICOT question as it suggests that intravenous drug errors caused by wrong or missed doses should be addressed to reduce the rate of these errors. The evidence provided by the authors is consistent with the findings of Machotka et al. (2017). The difference between the two studies is that Fedaku et al. (2017) provide wrong and missed doses errors as the focus of the study while Machotka et al. (2017) focus on the physiochemical incompatibility of intravenous drugs as the cause of these errors. The controversy in this article is that when other studies discuss intravenous drug incompatibility, it discusses dose errors in ICU.

Ertuna et al. (2019) discuss drug-related problems (DRP) in older adults and associate these DRPs with complex medication regimes and the role pharmacist interventions play in reducing the rate of DRPs. (b) The article provides low-quality evidence that contrast with the other studies as it provides inadequate evidence to support DRPs in elderly patients caused by increased drug use. Evidence produced by this article is relevant to the PICOT question because it addresses the rate of errors caused by drugs used by older adults. The similarity between these articles with Srisram et al. (2020) is that both articles consider pharmacist guidance as an effective intervention for intravenous drug errors. While Srisram et al. (2020) consider pharmaceutical guidelines as an effective solution to intravenous drug errors, Ertuna et al. (2019) consider pharmacists’ intervention as the ultimate solution. The controversy observed in this article is that it proposes 329 interventions to reduce the rate of drug errors while other studies propose one or two interventions.

Hanifa et al. (2018) explore the increase in the rate of intravenous incompatibility due to the use of a single intravenous line in the pediatric unit. The article provides high-quality evidence to show that the use of a single intravenous line to administer multiple drugs increases the rate of incompatibility medication errors. The evidence applies to the PICOT question since it shows the impact of incompatible drug administration using a single intravenous line on the rate of medication errors. The similarity between this article and Mosopefoluwa et al. (2019) is that both consider the co-administration of intravenous drugs as a major cause of incompatibility. The main difference between the two studies is that Hanifa et al. (2018) focus on the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) while Mosopefoluwa focuses on the general intensive care unit (ICU). The controversy in this article is that it states that there is limited evidence to show patterns of concurrent medication use utilizing a single intravenous line but concludes that this type of drug administration is common practice.

Vijayakumar et al (2019), relates intravenous drug administration of two or more incompatible drugs with the rate of drug-related problems (DRPs) in hospitalized patients. The article’s evidence is of good quality because the study is conducted using a sizeable sample of 110 patients and the results led to a conclusion that simultaneously administering two or more incompatible drugs intravenous increases the rate of errors in ICU. The findings in this article apply to the PICOT question because they discuss the rate of errors impacted by intravenous drug incompatibilities. The evidence in this article is similar to Hanifa et al. (2019) study findings. The main difference is that Vijayakumar et al. (2019) do not focus on a single hospital or country where the study was conducted while Hanifa et al. (2019) include a single location where the study was conducted (Indonesian hospital). There was no controversy identified in the article.

The study conducted by Assefa et al. (2020) discusses the polypharmacy and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) experienced by older cardiovascular patients due to multiple drug therapy required to manage cardiovascular diseases. The article provided high-quality evidence supported by the identification of 850 potential DDIs which reduces the risk of bias in the article. The findings in this article apply to the PICOT question because they show the risk posed by DDIs due to drug incompatibility in older patients. The similarity between the articles is that they conducted cross-sectional studies. The difference between Assefa et al. (2020) article and Ertuna et al. (2019) is that while the former does not suggest an intervention strategy the latter proposes pharmacist intervention as a solution to drug-related problems such as drug-drug interactions. There was no controversy identified in this article.

Sabzi et al. (2019) establish a connection between medication errors and healthcare complexities such as hospital management and work environment among other nurse work dynamics. The article provides low-quality evidence that associates the nurse work environment with the rate of medication errors therefore a high risk of bias. The findings of this article are slightly applicable to the PICOT question because they focus on work dynamics and the role they play in the rate of medication errors. This study is similar to other studies because it conducts a cross-sectional study. The major difference between this article and other articles is that this article focuses on work dynamics as a source of medication errors while others focus on drug incompatibility as the cause of medication errors in hospitals. The controversy in this article is that it generalizes the results conducted from a single hospital to suggest that work conditions irrefutable increase or reduce the rate of medication errors.

Mendez et al. (2018) established that to identify drug incompatibility errors, it is crucial to consider the types and frequency of errors that occur during drug preparation and administration. The evidence provided by this article is of good quality and shows that intravenous drug errors are of different types and are very frequent during preparation and administration. The applicability of the evidence in this article to the PICOT question is that it focuses on incompatibility medication errors that occur during drug administration. The similarity between this article and Fekadu et al. (2017) is that both conduct a hospital-based cross-sectional study on intravenous drug incompatibility. The difference between the two studies is that Mendez et al. (2018) focus on both types and frequency of these errors while Fekadu et al. (2017) focus only on the frequency (prevalence) of drug administration errors.While other studies focused on the drugs administered, this article focused on hand hygiene during drug preparation and asepsis materials during infusion.

Oduyale et al. (2019) reveal that multiple intravenous drugs can be administered using the same IV catheter as long as there is drug compatibility the article provided low-quality evidence by generalizing results obtained from twenty nurses and two hospitals in the same location in England. The evidence applies to the PICOT question because it explores drug compatibility as an effective solution to medication errors caused by intravenous drug administration using the same lumen of an IV catheter. The similarity between this article and Hanifa et al. (2018) is that both articles discuss the co-administration of multiple intravenous drugs through a single infusion line. The article is different from Hanifa et al. (2018) because it collects data through focus group interviews while the other uses a mixed model design. There was no controversy discovered in this article.

Knowledge directly to PICOT question

The rate of errors due to incompatibility of intravenous medication can be reduced by implementing a nurse-training program that is based on the interventions suggested in the articles. A nurse-training program will enable nurses to reduce the rate of errors they cause when they administer incompatible intravenous drugs using the same infusion line. The program will also focus on the numerous interventions proposed by the ten articles to reduce the rate of errors. They will also be able to identify the types of errors caused by drug incompatibilities and the frequency in which they occur, enabling them to form evidence-based interventions to reduce the frequency of these errors (Mendez et al., 2019).

Oduyale et al. (2018) propose administering multiple intravenous drugs that are compatible using the same lumen of an IV catheter. The article insists on assessing and managing the compatibility of intravenous drugs since co-administration of intravenous drugs in ICU is common practice and elderly patients aged 65 years and above often require multiple drug therapy and few infusion lines. Vijayakumar et al. (2019) highlight the importance of forming effective strategies for reducing the rate of errors due to the incompatibility of intravenous medications because these errors cause drug-drug interactions among other drug-related problems that affect elderly patients. The strategies proposed in these two studies help reduce medication errors and when implemented properly with adequate nurse training can improve the safety of patients aged 65 years and above in ICU (Vijayakumar et al., 2019).

Practice Change

Implementing an eight-week nurse training program using Watson’s caring theory reduced the rate of errors caused by intravenous drug incompatibility. This is because nurses can assess and manage drug compatibility in ICU during the preparation and administration stages. Subsequently, a nurse-training program provided nurses with evidence-based practice knowledge on compatible drugs and their compatible conditions or proportions. A nurse training program will also equip nurses with drug preparation knowledge and skills to utilize a single or few infusion lines that elderly patients (65 years and above) have because the drugs cannot be administered orally (Mendez et al., 2019).


Objective

The objective of implementing eight nurse training programs is to reduce the rate of errors caused by the incompatibility of intravenous drugs. Reducing the rate of these errors will lead to positive or better patient outcomes since these errors lead to patient morbidity and mortality due to drug-related problems and clinical complications. The implementation of the proposed problem change aims at improving patient safety and reducing the rate of mortality and morbidity in elderly patients caused by incompatibility that is preventable through a nurse-based intervention. The problem change also focuses on improving patient quality of life and increasing recovery rate by preventing medication errors caused by incompatibility during and after drug administration (Assefa et al., 2020).

Problem exists

The issue of medication errors due to the incompatibility of intravenous medication is prevalent in intensive care units since there are limited drug infusion lines, especially in elderly patients who require multiple drug therapy to manage serious health issues such as cardiovascular diseases. ICU patients cannot take medication orally; hence, limited infusion lines reduce the drug’s effectiveness and can potentially cause adverse drug reactions. The proposition for change is to reduce nurse practice-based factors that lead to increased errors caused by incompatibility. The proposition also targets elderly patients since their high age is a risk factor for drug interactions due to the low metabolism rate associated with aging (Assefa et al., 2020).

Pros vs Cons

The benefits associated with a nurse training program focused on drug compatibility are reduced rate of errors caused by incompatibility, improved patient safety in ICU, reduced rate of mortality and morbidity caused by these errors, reduced cost of healthcare due to reduced hospitalization, and readmission rate, increased patients quality of life and recovery rate among others. The disadvantage presented by implementing a nurse-training intervention is the lack of time to attend the program due to heavy nurse workloads and high nurse-patient ratios that prevent nurses from pursuing other ventures such as nurse training programs. The current state of the rate of errors is moderate to high since there has yet to be a successful intervention implemented to reduce the frequency of these errors (Mendez et al., 2019).

Strengths and weaknesses of all the sources

The strength of Srisram et al. (2020) article is that it studies a 1000-bed ICU unit to draw objective conclusions. The weakness of this article is that it analyses the incompatibility of only two drug combinations and fails to observe clinical complications caused by these drug incompatibilities. The strength of Machotka et al. (2015) article is that the study lasts 12 months, a sufficient time to draw objective conclusions. However, the article presents challenges of ensuring that the studies are blind which could present a bias.

The strength of Fekadu et al. (2017) is, in addition to errors caused by the incompatibility of intravenous drugs, it explores errors due to wrong and missed doses of these drugs. The limitation of this study is that it was conducted in one center with a small sample size. The strength of Ertuna et al. (2019) is that it proposes that pharmacists be part of the intervention. The limitation of this study is that it has limited resources and time to evaluate the interventions.

The strength of Hanifa et al. (2018) is it explores a different patient population to show that drug incompatibility can occur in other units. However, the study is limited in that fails to consider and observe the clinical implications caused by these errors. The strength of Vijayakumar et al. (2019) is that the article considers findings in hospitals in Germany, France, and the UK among other countries to provide evidence with little to no bias. The weakness of this study is that it was conducted inwards instead of in ICUs where these types of medication errors are prevalent.

Assefa et al. (2020) strongly point out how drug-drug interactions caused by the incompatibility of two or more drugs affect elderly patients with cardiovascular. However, the article does not discuss drug incompatibility as a cause of DDIs in detail. Sarbi et al. (2019) focus on other causes of medication errors that affect the elderly such as nurse work conditions. However, the study fails to show significant differences in the rate of medication errors under diverse work dynamics.

Mendez et al. (2018) not only consider the type of errors in drug preparation and administration, but also the frequency in which they occur in the ICU. The study, however, was conducted in a single center with a small sample size. the strength of Oduyale et al. (2019) is that it proposes interventions that utilize the available resources. the weakness of this study is that it was conducted in two hospitals within the same critical care region therefore the results may not reflect the perspectives of ICU nurses in other areas.

References

Assefa, Y. A., Kedir, A., & Kahaliw, W. (2020). Survey on polypharmacy and drug-drug interactions among elderly people with cardiovascular diseases at yekatit 12 hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 
Integrated Pharmacy Research & Practice
9, 1. https://doi.org/
10.2147/IPRP.S231286

Ertuna, E., Arun, M. Z., Ay, S., Koçak, F. Ö. K., Gökdemir, B., & İspirli, G. (2019). Evaluation of pharmacist interventions and commonly used medications in the geriatric ward of a teaching hospital in Turkey: a retrospective study. 
Clinical Interventions in Aging
14, 587. https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S201039

Fekadu, T., Teweldemedhin, M., Esrael, E., & Asgedom, S. W. (2017). Prevalence of intravenous medication administration errors: a cross-sectional study. 
Integrated pharmacy research & practice
6, 47. https://doi.org/
10.2147/IPRP.S125085

Hanifah, S., Ball, P., & Kennedy, R. (2018). Medication incompatibility in intravenous lines in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Indonesian hospital. 
Critical Care & Shock
21(3).

Machotka, O., Manak, J., Kubena, A., & Vlcek, J. (2015). Incidence of intravenous drug incompatibilities in intensive care units. 
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
159(4), 652-6.

Mendes, J. R., Lopes, M. C. B. T., Vancini-Campanharo, C. R., Okuno, M. F. P., & Batista, R. E. A. (2018). Types and frequency of errors in the preparation and administration of drugs. 
Einstein (São Paulo)
16.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-45082018AO4146

Oduyale, M. S., Patel, N., Borthwick, M., & Claus, S. (2020). Co‐administration of multiple intravenous medicines: Intensive care nurses’ views and perspectives. 
Nursing in Critical Care
25(3), 156-164.

Sabzi, Z., Mohammadi, R., Talebi, R., & Roshandel, G. R. (2019). Medication Errors and Their Relationship with Care Complexity and Work Dynamics. 
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
7(21), 3579.

Sriram, S., Aishwarya, S., Moithu, A., Sebastian, A., & Kumar, A. (2020). Intravenous drug incompatibilities in the intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in India: Are they preventable?. 
Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
9(2), 106.

Vijayakumar, A., Sharon, E. V., Teena, J., Nobil, S., & Nazeer, I. (2019). A clinical study on drug-related problems associated with intravenous drug administration. 
Journal of basic and clinical pharmacy
5(2), 49.

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