Smgt 505 – risk management presentation assignment

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Overview

While we regularly see issues and trends in the sport, tourism, and recreation industries make headlines in the media the, sometimes, underlying legal issues might not be as obvious. However, it is incumbent for a competent manager to understand how certain decisions, actions and the like might carry important legal implications. The three-part Sport Law Project in this course provides students the opportunity to explore a legal issue of their choosing from a variety of instructive methods. As a result, the Sport Law Project is comprised of the following three assignments: an annotated bibliography, a written paper, and a risk management presentation. The Annotated Bibliography assignment helps students delve into the scholarly literature in order to inform their breadth and depth of knowledge regarding the issue being examined. The Paper assignment allows students the opportunity to develop their knowledge base by presenting literature and legal evidence on their chosen topic and applying the outcomes and lessons to managerial practice. Finally, the Risk Management Presentation assignment creates the pragmatic yet hypothetical, ‘if I had to present this topic to my staff in an employee training workshop, what key information about this legal issue do I need to convey from a risk management perspective?’

Instructions

In order to complete this assignment you will create a 15 to 20-slide PowerPoint presentation that combines the D.I.M. process of risk management to the managerial application section of your research paper. The D.I.M. process is covered in course readings and provides you with a conceptual framework for your presentation including how to incorporate and apply the requisite matrices for your legal issue.  Depending on your legal issues topic, you may need to adapt some aspects from your paper in order to develop a risk management plan that could mitigate plausible concerns for managerial practice. As suggested in the overview above, create the PowerPoint Presentation as if it is intended to train employees on the process, plan, and practical treatments of risk management for your particular legal issue.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the SafeAssign plagiarism tool.

SMGT 505

Annotated Bibliography Assignment Instructions

Overview

While we regularly see issues and trends in the sport, tourism, and recreation industries make headlines in the media the, sometimes, underlying legal issues might not be as obvious. However, it is incumbent for a competent manager to understand how certain decisions, actions and the like might carry important legal implications. The three-part Sport Law Project in this course provides students the opportunity to explore a legal issue of their choosing from a variety of instructive methods. As a result, the Sport Law Project is comprised of the following three assignments: an annotated bibliography, a written paper, and a risk management presentation. The Annotated Bibliography assignment helps students delve into the scholarly literature in order to inform their breadth and depth of knowledge regarding the issue being examined. The Paper assignment allows students the opportunity to develop their knowledge base by presenting literature and legal evidence on their chosen topic and applying the outcomes and lessons to managerial practice. Finally, the Risk Management Presentation assignment creates the pragmatic yet hypothetical, ‘if I had to present this topic to my staff in an employee training workshop, what key information about this legal issue do I need to convey from a risk management perspective?’

Instructions

As the first assignment in the three-part Sport Law Project, you will create an annotated bibliography consisting of 10 peer-reviewed sources.  An annotated bibliography is an alphabetical list of complete citations (in APA format) to the literature you have researched on your topic, each citation accompanied by a brief paragraph explaining the contents of each entry.  Each annotation should not summarize the article, nor should it list the article’s content; rather, it should briefly explain 1) the author’s main point or argument; 2) the author’s method or approach; and 3) the place of the piece in the literature as a whole (e.g., does the author agree with other scholars?).  The Annotated Bibliography should provide a solid overview of the existing state of the discussion in the area you are studying. 

In addition to these instructions and strict adherence to current APA format, you must include the following:

· In order for your instructor to understand the context for your bibliography, state your sport, tourism, recreation, etc. legal issue at the top of the document, before your first reference. This topic will be the same legal issue you study through all three parts of the Sport Law Project.

· To eliminate any possible confusion, number each peer-reviewed reference, 1 through 10. Additional non-peer-reviewed references are welcome but include at the bottom of the document, in a separate list.

· Write your respective summary paragraph for each reference immediately after each APA-formatted citation.

· Since attention to detail is an excellent skill to develop, complete adherence to correct and current APA format is expected for each peer-reviewed citation.

· A title page or abstract is not needed for this assignment.

· While older, seminal publications can be included in addition to those numbered 1 through 10, acceptable sources for the required ten peer-reviewed citations must be published within the last ten years.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the SafeAssign plagiarism tool.

Running Head: SPORT LAW PROJECT 2

PAPER ASSIGNMENT 1

Sport Law Project: Paper Assignment

Chet L. Walker

Liberty University

SMGT 505 – Legal Issues in Sport

Dr. Clark Zealand

19 February 2021

Abstract

The authors demonstrate that the increase in cases suing authorities and other personalities due to inequality portrays society’s problems regarding gender inequality. The legal issues surrounding gender inequality either in sports, recreation, and hotel are similar. They have changed as the world becomes modernized and globalization becomes a reality. Cultural influences and education have opened the door for increased cases of women demanding equal treatment either at work or in sports.

Introduction

There is a wide range of legal issues considered by the sport, tourism, and the recreation industry. If leaders exposed the public’s legal matters, then the trends would be regarded as more severe than being presented as an after-thought (Ahmad et al., 2020). The sport, tourism, and recreational industry easily make it to the news as they touch on social issues that most people can relate resto. For example, if many fans are belonging to the LA Lakers basketball team, then any actions were taken by their players that touch on ethical and legal issues will likely make it to the news. It can represent a selling point for the broadcasters.

There have been increasing concerns in sports regarding the high salaries and bonuses they receive and compare to the community and social contribution they make (Smith et al., 2018). Other than that, gender equality when it comes to salaries has made headlines, and doping, which involves using illegal drugs and substances that help boost physical performance, has led to divisions. In this study, legal issues surrounding gender equality, ethical guidelines available, and their effects on the industry’s growth will be illustrated and discussed.

While the tourism and recreation sector contribute immensely to many nations’ economic growth, gender issues relating to employment and promotions have remained consistent. If there is a legal issue that has remained persistent, then it is the gender equality discussion. It has brought together stakeholders from different sectors, but it has remained unsolved (Smith et al., 2018). For example, the president of the Olympic Organizing Committee in Tokyo, Mr. Yoshiro Mori, has recently resigned after a public backlash regarding sexist comments he made.

Annotated Bibliography

Senne, J. A. (2016). Examination of gender equity and female participation in sport. The Sport Journal, 19, 1-9.

Joshua Senne reports on the history of female participation in sports. He dives into how the subject has remained divisive despite claims that they are is in the modern age where all men and women are treated as equals in all industries (Senne, 2016). The author covers five topics to pass his message regarding concerns that gender equality still has a long way to go before claiming victory. The first topic revolves around the treatment of women in sports throughout history (Krech, 2017). The second touches on governance and management. The administration has traditionally been left for men; thus, it is of particular interest that the author claims low representation of women in administration has ensured women rag behind in growth.

The third issue the author tackles is the gender equity issues in sport that range from ethical to legal concerns. The author revises legislation that has helped promote women’s athletics despite the low number of audiences it attracts. It is vital to note that men’s athletics receive a wider audience compared to women in almost every major sport. If the existing legal frameworks are not improving the condition, then it is about time that new structures are put in place. The change should start at the top of any long-term positive changes are to be made (Senne, 2016). Senne also illustrates that the top leadership is not doing enough to create legislation that will make it policy and regulation for a particular ratio of the full seat reserved for women. If it was legally required to have women in top governance of sports, maybe changes would have occurred easily by leaders.

The fourth issue that the author explains is gender equity, Title IX, and sports participation. Title IX is government-made legislation that made changes to government policies and federal law. It states that leaders must not use the sex of an athlete by management to exclude participants from taking part in athletics, enjoying benefits from educational activities, or be subjected to discrimination during educational programs that the federal program has financed and supported (Pike et al., 2018). The legal framework is, therefore, available for an excellent foundation to be possible. If more females are provided education and future scholarships through the federal enactment, it will be a matter of time before gender inequality becomes a thing of the past.

The author, Joshua Senne, has demonstrated that Title IX has all the elements of a quality legal system. It ensures equality and solves a problem that was left to organizational committees and regional government to handle. Co-existence between male and female athletics is thus possible as they both bring unique qualities to the industry. Therefore, Joshua Senne defines Title IX as comprehensive and useful as, before the law, about 32,000 females were participating in inter-college games. After its introduction, the number increased to 200,000. Over the years, the enactment fruits are visible, with over 44.3% of athletes in the London Olympic games being female. However, the author raises concerns regarding the legal issues surrounding Title IX as it assumes that both genders have the same interest in sports. Past surveys and case studies have disputed Title IX claims. Therefore, any financial assistance is offered on the proportion and ratios of the participants.

The fifth issue revolves around the equality applied in cued sports. There are games played in the Olympics that promote and encourage men and women to play together on the same team. Such games include curling and skating (Shin and Nam, 2004). The author pinpoints how these games have increased awareness regarding legal issues that have to be created to make it possible to increase the number of games that can include both sexes. It can make it possible for an increase in cued sports through internal legislation.

Kogovsek, M., & Kogovsek, M. (2015). Hospitality and tourism gender issues remain unsolved: A call for research. Quaestus, (6), 194.

The authors Metka and Mojca focus on female talent mismanagement in the recreation and hotel industry by reviewing literature that provides more information regarding the topic. The legal challenges and issues that face the industry to implement better gender policies are also examined. The author urges the community and organizations to rethinks how human resources manage manpower. New legal issues that put into perspective the management of talent are discussed. The authors pinpoint an international legal agreement regarded as (Directive Council 76/207/EEC). The directive comes after many other legislations since 1957 that declares equal pay as an essential principle that the hotel industry should apply. The Rome Treaty of 1957 provided a legal framework that was expected to open more discussions that would eventually guarantee women and men in the recreation industry receive equal pay and work conditions.

The author declares unequal treatment in the hotel industry as a form of segregation that tends to limit women’s rights. If there are chances of career development, the authors suggest creating legal frameworks that will compel management to reserve positions that women will quickly fill.

Review of Literature

The information collected from the various authors is primarily from case studies and real-life analysis and evaluation. The legal issues that arise from the coping of discrimination against women promote strategies that range from legislation to force organizations to pay equally among genders to those regulating promotions. Policy advocacy activities that lead to gender equality are very limited in both the hotel and sports industries (Kashani et al., 2019). The authors and the materials used in this case study have illustrated that time is the best tool when enforcing any legislation. If significant changes are made within a short time, various stakeholders might not have understood the aims leading to the increased complaint on work environment difficulties.

The authors pinpoint that legislations made in the past and are yet to be implemented must not be amended if they favor women in any field. For example, some legislations deny women opportunity if they are found to be pregnant during a sporting event. The reason to deny them is to promote safety measures, but the authors do not guarantee that authorities will deny future opportunities such as scholarships.

Joshua Senne applies Title IX material in his studies and ensures its immediate implementation since the 1970s is closely evaluated. The limitation of its enactment is discussed, with the main points being the program’s expansion to meet new technological challenges that arise today. The problems represented in the television do not much the legal policies aimed at protecting the athlete leading to the audience blaming them for their failures and lack of motivation. Therefore, current trends in gender discrimination should be accommodated, such as gender stereotyping, gender bullying through social media, and LGBTQ rights in legal issues.

Managerial Application

The managerial roles have expanded in today’s corporate and enterprise levels leading to the need to understand current trends and issues affecting employees, such as gender equality. As a manager, I will seek guidance to understand the legal matter application by involving a company secretary (Thorpe and Wheaton, 2018). Outsourcing is the best option to prevent reputation loss. Particularly when a gender feels underrepresented or unappreciated, then it is bad for business. Managers should apply for their roles following any legislation to ensure inequality in the hotel and recreation industry is a thing of the past.

As a manager, gender-neutral terms referring to activities in the sporting or hotel industry are a great place to start. For example, parental leave would be a suitable replacement for the general use of maternity leave. Workers used the rest to refer to females leading to more discrimination grounds (Moawad, 2019). The complexity of changing terms ensures the leader uses their charm and persuasiveness to enact internal policies that promote equality.

The leader must be emotionally aware of pinpointing where bias has occurred against a gender. A manager stays vigilant and offers the opportunity to protect all the employees from risks. The manager will provide grounds for other men to protect women when they have received threats or bias. If it is made a legal crime to witness discrimination and do nothing about it, more women will feel safe. As a manager, I am hiring new talents (Ahmad et al., 2020). The opportunity is vital by management to hire on a 50/50 basis without bias to meet legal requirements if possible. It will make all employees comfortable in the hotel, recreation, and sports industry.

The leadership role is inevitable if anyone is aspiring to be a manager. Therefore, for them to support policies and regulations that increase the hiring and sponsorship of discriminated groups, certain positions must be assigned to people with disabilities to help the organization meet its community programs. If a leader does not lead by example, then an increase in cases of gender discrimination will increase a result.

As a manager, it is vital to motivate employees to embrace legal policies that make the workplace a safe area for all genders. Encouraging the team through the provision of benefits will increase the adaptability of the organization. The managers can also organize training and education by inviting professionals who understand all the legitimate concerns employees have regarding gender equality in sports (Moawad, 2019). The experts can present recent scientific findings that put gender disorders on the spot. There is an apparent change when women participate in sports as their health benefits are more.

Strong ladies must also be promoted to a position of influence to act as an example that the feeling of self-empowerment is valid, and anyone can accomplish great things if the effort is enough. It will accelerate social integration leading to increased sport participation and increased safe spaces for ladies (Krech, 2017). As a manager changing gender norms through increased gender participation allows the change of how men view ladies’ role in the enterprise’s success. There are verses in the bible that promote equal treatment of people, such as Galatians 3:28. It states that everyone is one in Christ, either a Jew or not, a male or female, free or a slave. Even Romans 2:11 says that God shows no discrimination against anyone. It means that as managers, we should apply the same principle in all activities, either sports, hotel, or recreation industry.

Risk Management

If leaders presented the legal issues associated with risk management and gender inequality to my employees, I would ensure only the most capable and experienced experts are available. The problem can be sensitive, particularly when carrying out learning and developmental programs through the human resource department (Thorpe and Chawansky, 2017). The inherent risk s pinpointed because inexperienced individuals might end up being hired in the fight to achieve gender balance in an organization. Therefore, some strategies argue that gender must be the last resort when several candidates have tied.

The process of risk management has several stages that begin with risk identification. The first risk identified pinpointed an increase in the low-skilled and talented workforce as the need to achieve gender balance surpasses talent consideration (Pape, 2020). Therefore, the company must employ legal personnel that will help achieve gender equality and at the same time protect the valuable talent that increases the competitive advantage of the team. Managers will adopt a meaningful risk assessment technique by bringing together all the stakeholders to ensure all gas that different departments know are presented.

A decision-making structure that stays within the conforms of the law will ensure delays do not happen. A decentralized management technique for the employees will seal some potential risks of losing reputation due to ineffective employees. Solving legal issues in gender hiring, then the right people need to be set up in the legal department (Kogovsek, 2015). Accountability will be paramount for the organization to achieve any progress. Therefore, the company will save on operational costs and protect any penalties and fines that may arise from authorities as the institution will have met the legal gender threshold.

The third stage of risk management will revolve around senior executives of the organization. Their roles as leaders who use their influence to get things done can assure employees that they will not be affected by the incoming valuation that wants to achieve gender inclusivity (Kogovsek, 2015). It will help prevent rogue employees who might want to put the company in a bad light. The middle management must help the top seniors to pass a message of collaboration and accountability that will motivate employees to give their best in every task.

The process of analyzing the risks of not following regulations and balancing gender ratios might not be as catastrophic. It is particularly true if the regulations have been internally developed. The government’s external regulations offer no alternatives but to meet the minimum requirements (Naidoo and Singh, 2017). Thus, it is up to the management to study past cases that Title IX and other gender legal amendments that are implemented successfully try to copy the same procedures. It is the step that examines possible alternatives are identification and assessment.

If the organization must spend extra funds to achieve gender laws, then operational costs will increase. Accepting the risks is a better way to prevent major structural changes that might disrupt operations. Since its nearly impossible to transfer the risk to a legal team or entity, then deciding on the possible solutions gives a chance for business continuity to be preserved (Mojtahedi and Katsui, 2018). Monitoring how the solutions are chosen and working for the team allows business managers to focus on other core functions as the legal team will handle any repercussions or mishaps.

In conclusion, many cases portray how sports, recreation, and hotel industries are managing legal issues pertaining to gender equality. The sports gender inequality is particularly extreme in Iran, where women are kept under the authorities’ watchful eye. It is illegal to spectate on a men’s team playing in a stadium. The author Akbar Talebpour (2019) explains that multiple regression and path analysis can help advise the government or legal entities about the adverse effects of discriminating legislation on the hotel and recreation industries (Evans and Pfister, 2018). Therefore, it can be challenging to separate sports issues from other broader social problems. Sports act as a mirror to gender inequalities being experienced.

In Korea, a cultural shift that has brought onboard women into sports participation has opened doors to hotel and recreation facilities success. All these are clear with the country winning the bid to host the 2021 Olympics. The Olympics will open the door to an increase in the tourism sector as the country has been accepted as a significant stakeholder in promoting gender equality in many sports. The author Eui Hang Shin (2004) that an LPGA all-women Korean team was unheard of just a few years back. But today, they are winning championships.

There are other sports where integration success for all genders has been near impossible. In skateboarding, the sport is male dominant, and the few women who participate in it are near armatures. But author, Holly Thorpe (2017) illustrates that action sports can still improve their sex-segregation characteristics. For example, in wrestling, more and more women are participating in the field.

References

Ahmad, N., Thorpe, H., Richards, J., & Marfell, A. (2020). Building cultural diversity in sport: a critical dialogue with Muslim women and sports facilitators. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 12(4), 637-653.

Dowling, M., Leopkey, B., & Smith, L. (2018). Governance in sport: A scoping review. Journal of sport management, 32(5), 438-451.

Evans, A. B., & Pfister, G. U. (2020). Women in sports leadership: A systematic narrative review. International review for the sociology of sport, 1012690220911842.

Krech, M. (2017). To be a woman in the world of sport: Global regulation of the gender binary in elite athletics. Berkeley J. Int’l L., 35, 262.

Kogovsek, M., & Kogovsek, M. (2015). Hospitality and tourism gender issues remain unsolved: A call for research. Quaestus, (6), 194.

Moawad, J. (2019). Gender Inequality in Sports. FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte, (13), 28-53.

Mojtahedi, M. C., & Katsui, H. (2018). Making the right real! A case study on the implementation of the right to sport for persons with disabilities in Ethiopia. Sport in Society, 21(1), 40-49.

Pape, M. (2020). Gender segregation and trajectories of organizational change: The underrepresentation of women in sports leadership. Gender & Society, 34(1), 81-105.

Pike, E., White, A., Matthews, J., Southon, S., & Piggott, L. (2018). Women and sport leadership: A case study of a development programme. In the Palgrave Handbook of Feminism and Sport, Leisure and Physical Education (pp. 809-823). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Shin, E. H., & Nam, E. A. (2004). Culture, gender roles, and sport: The case of Korean players on the LPGA tour. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 28(3), 223-244.

Senne, J. A. (2016). Examination of gender equity and female participation in sport. The Sport Journal, 19, 1-9.


Singh, T. L., & Naidoo, L. D. (2017). Assessing gender inequality in South Africa: A case study of women in sports management. Journal of Research in Business, Economics and Management, 8(2), 1407-1428.

Talebpour, A., Nazari Azad, M., & Kashani, M. (2019). Sociological Analysis of Gender Inequality in Sport (The Perspective of Female National Hero Athlete). Quarterly Journal of Women and Society, 10(40), 289-316.


Thorpe, H., & Chawansky, M. (2017). The gendered experiences of women staff and volunteers in sport for development organizations: The case of transmigrant workers of Skateistan. Journal of Sport Management, 31(6), 546-561.

Wheaton, B., & Thorpe, H. (2018). Action sports, the Olympic Games, and the opportunities and challenges for gender equity: The cases of surfing and skateboarding. Journal of sport and social issues, 42(5), 315-342.

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