# Spss: t-test and anovas.

Number each step in your word document. -5 for not doing so. This is due by 2/26 11:59pm. I will allow for feedback submissions until 2/22 at 11:59pm. You must submit through the assignment portal and email me by the deadline to tell me you submitted. As with the last assignment, please have the same member submit both. Save your assignment by your last names (-5 for not doing so).

1. In a Word document, list the research question you used in Assignment 2. You may alter it if you were told there were errors or if it needed to be more specific (5 points).
2. Take a screenshot (not a picture) of both the data view and variable view of cases you have entered (show all) into SPSS from Assignment 2. This should only be two screen shots. Now paste the screen shots under Number 1 above (15 points for this step). If you were told you had errors in Assignment 2, and some people did, fix them before getting to this step or you will lose all 15 points. If you had no errors, just cut and paste. This must be corrected if you did not have the correct variables, or the below will be incorrect.
3. Run one independent sample t-test on the appropriate variables. Cut and paste that t-test table under the above screen shots. Interpret the results – the relationship between the variables you chose in a minimum of 3 sentences. Tell me what this means about your variables you analyzed in this step (20 points for this step).
4. Run an ANOVA on the appropriate variables. Cut and paste the ANOVA table under the above. Interpret the results – the relationship between the variables in a minimum of 3 sentences. Tell me what this means about your variables you analyzed in this step (20 points for this step).
5. Explain the p value (significance) and what it means about the relationship for both tests above. Use a minimum of 2 sentences per p value, you should have 4 sentences total(15 points).
6. Run a partial correlation with three variables, one of them is your moderating variable. Cut and paste the tables under the above p value question. Interpret your results in a minimum of three sentences. (20 points)

Gabriela Perez

Yaneirys Acosta

CCJ 4700

Dr. Zgoba

Group Project

1. Can childhood trauma increase the opportunity to commit crime?

2. I hypothesize that early trauma increases the likelihood of committing a crime.

3. Childhood trauma can affect a child in a variety of ways, including emotionally,

psychologically, and even physically. Many rapists have been identified as having been

exploited as children; could this have influenced their decision to become a rapist?

According to research, juvenile justice systems have greater rates of child abuse or

neglect than the general community. Growing up with trauma is difficult for a child, they

are still in the early phases of growth and are learning this. That is their normal, and it is

all they’ve seen and known. Additional research has revealed that about 90% of juvenile

offenders in the United States alone have suffered some form of trauma as a child or in

their early adolescent years. Because of the activity they have witnessed that no one has

intervened in, they are more likely to commit crime later in life. The independent variable

is something that is altered for a different outcome to be the dependent variable when it is

defined. As a result, when measuring the independent variable, it is based on a child who

has never experienced trauma. The dependent variable is the outcome; that child’s

outcome will differ from another child who has experienced trauma growing up, such as

abuse or neglect. (Word Count: 210)

4. Multiple Choice

1. Constantly belittling a child is a form of?

a. Emotional abuse

b. Physical abuse

c. Neglect

d. Criticizing

2. Failure to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter, love, attention, or proper

supervision can be construed as child?

a. Neglect

b. Child abuse

c. Emotional abuse

d. Physical abuse

3. What is the leading cause of death for children in the US?

a. Child Abuse

b. Kidnapping

c. Suicide

d. Natural causes

4. Who reports the most child abuse cases?

a. Themselves

b. Third parties

c. The abuser

d. No one

5. Child abuse can result in.

a. Serious / permanent physical damage

b. Mental damage

c. Emotional change

d. All the above

6. What gender is most likely to commit crime due to childhood trauma?

a. Boys

b. Girls

c. Both

d. None

7. What are some signs of child abuse?

a. Hyperactivity

b. Social Withdrawal

c. Great concentration

d. A and B

8. Who is most likely to be the perpetrator on a child abuse case?

a. Teacher

b. Father

c. Family

d. Mother

9. Which race suffers child abuse the most?

a. African American

b. Native American

c. Hispanic

d. Asian

10. What other events can lead to childhood trauma

a. Family vacation

b. Great communication and relation with family

c. Cyberbullying / Bullying

5. Our goal is to reach out to volunteers who can assimilate to the purpose of our survey and

feel safe answering it. For this very reason, our best category of volunteers would be

teenagers, especially, high school students. High school students have slightly more

advanced reading and comprehension skills than elementary students; one could even say

that they have the same capacity as an adult. These questionnaires are similar to the

surveys that are given to adults; therefore, they could also serve to young adults in

college. If we reached out to college students to fill out our survey, we would be

interested in freshmen students since they are just beginning their journey in college.

Some adolescents still go through childhood trauma or childhood abuse; for that reason,

our survey would fit with the experience of these students. In conclusion, we can

determine how many individuals have been affected by trauma since childhood, how they

have been affected, and how likely they are to commit a crime in the future due to their

past experiences. (Word count: 175)

References

Does Child Abuse Cause Crime? (n.d.). NBER. https://www.nber.org/digest/jan07/does-child-

abuse-cause-crime

Child abuse – Symptoms and causes. (2021, September 24). Mayo Clinic.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/child-abuse/symptoms-causes/syc-

20370864

People Who Engage in Child Abuse or Neglect – Child Welfare Information Gateway. (n.d.).

Child Welfare Information Gateway. Retrieved January 24, 2022, from

https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/can/people/

Statista. (2021, February 2). Child abuse rate in the U.S. – victims by race/ethnicity 2019.

https://www.statista.com/statistics/254857/child-abuse-rate-in-the-us-by-race-

ethnicity/#statisticContainer

What is Childhood Trauma? |. (n.d.). Look through Their Eyes.

FBI. (2019, April 9). Adverse childhood experiences and crime. FBI. Retrieved January 24,

and-crime

Oseldman. (2018, May 25). Trauma types. The National Child Traumatic Stress Network.

Retrieved January 24, 2022, from https://www.nctsn.org/what-is-child-trauma/trauma-

types

Pathways between child maltreatment and adult criminal involvement. National Institute of

Justice. (n.d.). Retrieved January 24, 2022, from

criminal-involvement

Question 3

 Statistics Gender Ever_experienced_a_traumatic_event Traumatic event experienced Ever had unwanted sex? Source of traumatic event Witnessed a family member commit an illegal activity Family member who went to prison Reason for going to prison Crime committed Rate of crime Are parents divorced or separated 20 20 16 20 20 20 18 17 20 20 20 0 0 4 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 Mode 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 2 1a a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

Question 4

 Statistics Age_range Frequency of unwanted sex N Valid 20 18 Missing 0 2 Mean 2.35 2.44 Median 2.00 2.00 Std. Deviation .988 .984 Variance .976 .967

Question 5

 Correlations Age_range Frequency of unwanted sex Age_range Pearson Correlation 1 .049 Sig. (2-tailed) .848 N 20 18 Frequency of unwanted sex Pearson Correlation .049 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .848 N 18 18

Question 6

The correlation coefficient between age and the frequency of unwanted sex is 0.848. That means that there are high rates of unwanted sex across the various ages.

Question 7