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Urinary System: Reabsorption and Secretion in the Proximal Tubule 1. What are the two reabsorption pathways through the tubular cell barrier? 1. 2. 2. How can we cause water to diffuse from the lumen into the interstitial space? 3. Transport of what ion could cause the diffusion in question 2? 4. Summarize reabsorption in the proximal tubule.
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Urinary System: Processing of Salt and Water in the Nephron 1. a. Aldosterone is stimulated by an increase or decrease in what ions? 1. _________________________ 2. _________________________ b. What does aldosterone increase in the basolateral membrane? 2. What does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increase in the luminal membrane? 3. Describe what move(s) out of the tubule and what the osmolarity would be in the following nephron segments: a. Proximal tubule ______ move(s) out ______ mOsm b. Descending limb ______ move(s)out ______ mOsm c. Ascending limb ______ move(s)out ______ mOsm d. Late distal tubule ______ move(s)out ______ mOsm 4. Under the following conditions, report the levels of ADH and subsequent urine osmolarity and flow rate: Hydration ADH Urine Osmolarity Urine Volume Normal Dehydration Overhydration
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Muscular System: Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion Answer Key _______________ is the movement of water and valuable solutes from the filtrate in the renal tubules into the blood. In which part of the renal tubule does this take place? In which part of the renal tubules does most of it take place? ______________ is the movement of selected solutes from the blood of the peritubular capillaries into the renal tubule for excretion. What is the purpose of reabsorption in the kidney tubule? Name 2 pathways whereby water and solutes can be reabsorbed from the lumen of the renal tubule to the blood of the peritubular capillaries. Which pathway is the most commonly used? How does the Na-K pump affect the reabsorption of sodium and water in the renal tubule? Consuming a salty meal would increase / decrease water reabsorption from the filtrate. How does sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule drive the reabsorption of other solutes such as glucose? Explain the concept of transport maximum in your own words. Considering the concept of transport maximum, why would a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus have glucose in their urine? What effect does aldosterone have on the membranes of the kidney tubule, and how does this effect sodium reabsorption? How does ADH (antidiuretic hormone) affect the collecting duct membrane, and how does this influence water reabsorption? In dehydration and overhydration, what would be the levels of: ADH ___________ dehydration ___________ overhydration (↑ or ↓) Aldosterone __________ dehydration ____________ overhydration (↑ or ↓) For each part of the renal tubule listed, tell whether reabsorption, secretion, or both processes happen there. Proximal tubule Nephron loop Distal tubule Collecting duct List at least 4 solutes that are secreted into the filtrate. With these items in mind, explain why secretion is so important in generating urine. Compare and contrast reabsorption and secretion for the following items: Reabsorption Secretion Where does it take place in the renal tubule? What substances undergo it? What is its primary function? Where are the substances moved to?
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Urinary System: Glomerular Filtration The ______________ arteriole feeds into the glomerulus, while the ______________ arteriole exits the glomerulus. The filtration membrane consists of three layers: the__________________ glomerular endothelium, the _______________ membrane, and the ___________________ processes (which contain filtration slits). This filtration membrane permits (large or small) molecules to be filtered. Glomerular filtration is a process driven by the _____________________________ of the blood. Common components of the glomerular filtrate are divided into four categories. Identify these categories. Glomerular hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus is about _____ mmHg. What two pressures oppose filtration and what are their values? What is the normal net filtration pressure? _____ mmHg The total amount of filtrate formed by all the renal corpuscles in both kidneys per minute is called the _________________ ________________ ______________. The kidneys autoregulate GFR via the ____________________ and _______________________ _______________ mechanisms. Cells within the ascending nephron loop that are chemoreceptive to sodium chloride concentrations are known as the ____________ ___________.

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