Unit 4

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  • Title Page – APA formatted.
  • Introduction to the Problem –  – This is where you analyze the issues or problems in your chosen Capstone topic. You may reuse your IP1 paper for this part of your Capstone paper, as long as you make any applicable updates, based upon your research and edit it so that it is not longer than 2 pages.
  • Literature Review –  – This is where you discuss or write about background information that you discovered when you completed your 8 Annotated Bibliographies in Unit 3. Do not copy-and-paste your Annotated Bibliography into your Capstone research paper. Instead, write in paragraph form, about the information that you discovered and documented in your Annotated Bibliography. Specifically, in your literature review, you will analyze what those authors wrote about in their articles. You should be able to write for each of the 8 annotated bibliographies that you submitted in your Unit 3 assignment. Click here to learn more about what a literature review is. It should be written in paragraph form.
  • Topic Analysis –  – This is where you present your own personal, professional and scholarly analysis about your Capstone issue(s), which is based on all of your research.
  • Conclusion –  – This is where you present your final conclusions and recommendations on how to mitigate or possibly solve the Capstone problem(s) that were identified. Your conclusions and recommendations should represent a synthesis of all that you have learned over the course of the program. You should be taking what you have learned and building upon that learning; combining concepts, skills and competencies into your final recommendations, demonstrating a deeper understanding of the issues based on your research and accumulated of learning.
  • Reference Page – APA formatted.

2

Annotated Bibliographies

Brittany Benjamin

09/06/2023


Annotated Bibliographies

Bacchini, F., & Lorusso, L. (2019). Race, again: how face recognition technology reinforces racial discrimination.
Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society,
17(3), 321–335. https://doi.org/10.1108/jices-05-2018-0050

Bacchini and Lorusso (2019) examine the impact of face recognition technology on racial discrimination, particularly within law enforcement agencies. The study investigates how technology reinforces racial disparities in stop, investigation, arrest, and incarceration rates. It finds causal pathways through which face recognition technology fosters racial profiling among historically disadvantaged groups like black people. The findings emphasize the need for law enforcement agencies and software companies to address the racially discriminative effects of this technology. This source is valuable for my final project in determining role of technology in perpetuating racial profiling in marginalized communities.

Legewie, J. (2016). Racial Profiling and Use of Force in Police Stops: How Local Events Trigger Periods of Increased Discrimination.
American Journal of Sociology,
122(2), 379–424.
https://doi.org/10.1086/687518

Legewie (2016) investigates the impact of local events like fatal shootings of police officers by black suspects on racial profiling and use of police force in New York City. Through a quasi-experimental design analyzing 3.9 million pedestrian stops, the study reveals a substantial increase in police force against black individuals in the days following such events. The escalation in force is limited for whites and Hispanics nor police murders involving white and Hispanic suspects. The research sheds light on the dynamics of intergroup conflict, stereotype reinforcement, and discriminatory responses triggered by specific events. My capstone project can utilize the article to gain acumens into temporal and contextual factors influencing racial bias in policing.

Hong, S. (2017). Black in Blue: Racial Profiling and Representative Bureaucracy in Policing Revisited.
Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory,
27(4), 547–561.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mux012

Hong (2017) investigates relationship between the level of ethnic representation within a police force and their engagement in racial profiling as a policing strategy. The research is based on data from English and Welsh police forces that implemented recruitment targets for officers from ethnic minority backgrounds from 2000 to 2010. The findings indicate that increased proportion of ethnic minorities within the police force increase decreases proportion of ethnic minorities subjected to stop-and-search procedures by that force. The research also highlights that active representation occurs in forces where racial profiling is intensively employed as a policing tactic. The source is valuable for my capstone project on racial profiling, offering insights into the impact of representative bureaucracy on the issue.

Nadal, K. L., Davidoff, K. C., Allicock, N., Serpe, C. R., & Erazo, T. (2017). Perceptions of Police, Racial Profiling, and Psychological Outcomes: A Mixed Methodological Study.
Journal of Social Issues,
73(4), 808–830. https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12249

Nadal et al. (2017) explore the phenomenon of racial profiling within the Nordic region in Finland and Sweden. It introduces the concept of the “racial welfare state” to describe the systemic racial hierarchies that persist in these countries despite their policies of color-blind universalism and egalitarianism. The study highlights that policing reinforces racial boundaries and equates whiteness with national belonging in the Nordic context. It emphasizes the police’s role in upholding these hierarchies and reproducing boundaries of belonging within the racial welfare state. The source provides my capstone project with insights into the nuances of racialization and the impact of policing on marginalized communities.

Pittman, C. (2017). “Shopping while Black”: Black consumers’ management of racial stigma and racial profiling in retail settings.
Journal of Consumer Culture,
20(1), 146954051771777. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540517717777

Pittman (2017) explores the experiences of 55 African American residents in the New York City area regarding consumer racial profiling, known as “Shopping While Black.” The article reveals that racial discrimination significantly impacts Black consumers’ experiences, altering the consumptive process in retail settings. Pittman identifies two key impacts: First, retail settings often highlight anti-Black bias, forcing Black shoppers to navigate racial hierarchies while shopping. Second, discrimination transforms the act of shopping from leisure into a fraught experience, raising costs and reducing rewards. The study will be used in my project to explore how racial stereotypes and stigma affect the perception of a customer’s status, operation of social hierarchies in retail, and role of consumption in responding to racial bias.

Hayle, S., Wortley, S., & Tanner, J. (2016). Race, Street Life, and Policing: Implications for Racial Profiling.
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice,
58(3), 322–353. https://doi.org/10.3138/cjccj.2014.e32

Hayle et al. (2016)
explore the complex dynamics of police interactions with youth from marginalized populations. The study compares high school students living at home and youth residing in shelters or on the streets in Toronto, Ontario. The authors reveal that even after controlling for demographic and behavioral factors, black high school students are more likely to experience multiple police stops and searches, indicating racial bias in policing. The source is valuable for my capstone project in exploring intersectionality of race, youth status, and policing practices.

O’Brien, G. (2021). Racial Profiling, Surveillance, and Over-Policing: The Over-Incarceration of Young First Nations Males in Australia.
Social Sciences,
10(2), 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020068

O’Brien (2021) examines the persistent over-representation of young First Nations males in the juvenile justice system across Australian states and territories. It delves into the experiences of young First Nations males in dealing with these issues from early age and explores the long-term effects and consequences they face. The paper argues that over-representation results from racial profiling, surveillance, and over-policing targeted at First Nations peoples in Australia. The source offers my capstone project valuable insights into link between racial profiling and over-representation in the criminal justice system, which will help me better understand the dimensions and consequences.

Plümecke, T., Wilopo, C. S., & Naguib, T. (2022). Effects of racial profiling: the subjectivization of discriminatory police practices.
Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2022.2077124

Plümecke et al. (2022) examine the effects of racial profiling in Swiss cities from the perspective of racialized minorities. Through qualitative interviews, the authors analyze both immediate and long-term consequences of police stops and searches. The article reveals that racial profiling results in humiliation, powerlessness, and fear among marginalized communities, but individuals also employ various tactics to resist police control. The study provides valuable real-world examples and narratives that can be utilized in my Capstone project to illustrate human racial profiling’s impact.

References

Bacchini, F., & Lorusso, L. (2019). Race, again: how face recognition technology reinforces racial discrimination.
Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society,
17(3), 321–335. https://doi.org/10.1108/jices-05-2018-0050

Hayle, S., Wortley, S., & Tanner, J. (2016). Race, street life, and policing: implications for racial profiling.
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice,
58(3), 322–353. https://doi.org/10.3138/cjccj.2014.e32

Hong, S. (2017). Black in blue: Racial profiling and representative bureaucracy in policing revisited.
Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory,
27(4), 547–561. https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mux012

Legewie, J. (2016). Racial profiling and use of force in police stops: How local events trigger periods of increased discrimination.
American Journal of Sociology,
122(2), 379–424. https://doi.org/10.1086/687518

Nadal, K. L., Davidoff, K. C., Allicock, N., Serpe, C. R., & Erazo, T. (2017). Perceptions of police, racial profiling, and psychological outcomes: A mixed methodological study.
Journal of Social Issues,
73(4), 808–830. https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12249

O’Brien, G. (2021). Racial profiling, surveillance, and over-policing: The over-incarceration of young First Nations males in Australia.
Social Sciences,
10(2), 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020068

Pittman, C. (2017). “Shopping while Black”: Black consumers’ management of racial stigma and racial profiling in retail settings.
Journal of Consumer Culture,
20(1), 146954051771777. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540517717777

Plümecke, T., Wilopo, C. S., & Naguib, T. (2022). Effects of racial profiling: the subjectivization of discriminatory police practices.
Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2022.2077124

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