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 ****ANSWER QUESTION 250 WORDS MIN***

Discussion Questions: Discuss the similarities and/or differences between the external borders of European Union (EU), the U.S. – Mexico border, and the U.S.-Canadian border? Explain how the borders within the EU have changed since the “Cold War”? 

****REPLY TO EACH POST 100 WORDS MIN EACH****

1. As we head into the final week of class I want to thank each and everyone of you for the candid feedback and great conversation in this online learning environment. This week we are tasked to discuss the similarities and/or differences between the external borders of European Union (EU), the U.S. – Mexico border, and the U.S.-Canadian border? Explain how the borders within the EU have changed since the “Cold War”? (LO8.1 & LO8.2).

Discuss the similarities and/or differences between the external borders of European Union (EU), the U.S. – Mexico border, and the U.S.-Canadian border?

Both in the US and in Europe, border control has become one central component of immigration and asylum policies with seemingly the same objective: preventing irregular entries of migrants and refugees. This trend has accelerated in recent years, with ever stricter border controls, more detention of migrants and refugees, the use of the notion of “safe third country” and partnerships with third countries, some of which now play a pivotal role in controlling the borders of their US and European neighbors, such as Turkey and Mexico. (Tardis, 2020). These borders all are similar in having policies in place, but the EU has no unified immigration policy like the United States has. This is something that can be challenging for countries to ensure that they are safe and secure from terroristic threats.

Explain how the borders within the EU have changed since the “Cold War”?

Europe has always been defined and influenced by its periphery, and it has shifted its position on the map accordingly. NATO’s very move eastward after the Cold War, incorporating the countries of the former Warsaw Pact—however controversial that decision remains—has a deep echo in Europe’s past. So does the construction of Russian natural gas lines extending throughout Central and Eastern Europe. The American historian Henry Adams famously wrote more than a century ago that the fundamental challenge of Europe was and would remain how to integrate Russia’s various lands into what he called the “Atlantic combine.” (Kaplan, 2022). The periphery just keeps encroaching on Europe: in the form of Russian military aggression, anarchy in the adjacent Middle East, and neighboring states seeking to join the EU. Ukraine is only one example of a nearby country yearning for freedom inside Europe’s institutions and cosmopolitan umbrella. (Kaplan, 2022).

 

2. As it relates to the EU border one thing that I found interesting was “Article 31 of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees” which basically means it “prohibits the punishment of asylum seekers who have crossed borders illegally, provided that they arrive directly from countries where their lives were in danger and/or have valid reasons for violating the rights of entry.” With that being said The European Court of Human Right is the judicial body that protects the human rights and freedom. The Schengen Area allows for free movement of people in and out of 27 different countries, while also having the EU single market which allows the free flow of goods, services, people, and money presenting the option to live, work and retire anywhere within the EU. The European Union’s Surveillance Design Communities (SDC) is closely compared to that of the US Department of Homeland Security. The relatively new creation of FRONTEX due to the huge influx of immigrant back in 2015-2016 is another comparison that reference the CBP. Lastly all of these borders have increased their security measures in personnel, technology and policies to strengthen border control, fight on criminal networks and the prosperity of life. The EU has entered an agreement with Turkey on those seeking asylum to be returned to their origin to contain the amount of people entering via the Greek Island the same as the US and the Los Angeles Declaration on immigration.

When it comes to comparing the differences and the way that the United States approach the borders, there are some clear highlights in this area. The US-Mexico border deals with complex issues pertaining to immigrant, policies, drugs, and security as suppose to the other two. There also seems to more of a malicious intent and perhaps terrorist activity to cause the US harm. The US-Canada border mostly deals with the smuggling of illicit drugs however immigrants are starting to arrive in efforts of crossing the border.

Explain how the borders within the EU have changed since the “Cold War”? (LO8.1 & LO8.2)

The EU has an actual and imagined border were the capacity to project and promote imagined security borders to include the upkeep in the promise of peace, prosperity, and stability however as well as armed military supervised by the creation of European Security and Defense Policy. Political and economic reform such as the Iron Curtain, would bring about a change providing favorable condition opening the border of freedom and the fall of the Berlin wall. The US would now face news issues other than political and nuclear weapons of mass destruction, would bring about terrorist and criminal syndicates. As stated in the previous week the 9/11 attack along with the USS Cole are two great examples on the ongoing fight against terrorist and the criminal network.

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