The Circumstellar Zone Simulator.

  • The top panel simulation displays a visualization of a star and its planets looking down onto the plane of the solar system. The habitable zone is displayed for the particular star being simulated. One can click and drag either toward the star or away from it to change the scale being displayed.
  • The General Settings panel provides two options for creating standards of reference in the top panel.
  • The Star and Planets Setting and Properties panel allows one to display our own star system, several known star systems, or create your own star-planet combinations in the none-selected mode.
  • The Timeline and Simulation Controls allows one to demonstrate the time evolution of the star system being displayed.

The simulation begins with our Sun being displayed as it was when it formed and a terrestrial planet at the position of Earth. One can change the planet’s distance from the Sun either by dragging it or using the planet distance slider.

Note that the appearance of the planet changes depending upon its location. It appears quite earth-like when inside the circumstellar habitable zone (hereafter CHZ). However, when it is dragged inside of the CHZ it becomes “desert-like” while outside it appears “frozen”.

Question 1:Drag the planet to the inner boundary of the CHZ and note this distance from

the Sun. Then drag it to the outer boundary and note this value. Lastly, take the difference

of these two figures to calculate the “width” of the sun’s primordial CHZ.

CHZ inner boundary

CHZ outer boundary

Width of CHZ

Question 2:Let’s explore the width of the CHZ for other stars. Complete the table below for stars with a variety of masses.

Text Box: Star Mass (M€)  Star Luminosity (L€)  CHZ Inner Boundary (AU)  CHZ Outer Boundary (AU)  Width of CHZ (AU)  0.3      0.7      1.0      2.0      4.0      8.0      15.0

Question 3:Using the table above, what general conclusion can be made regarding the location of the CHZ for different types of stars?

Question 4:Using the table above, what general conclusion can be made regarding the width of the CHZ for different types of stars?

Exploring Other Systems

Begin by selecting the system 51 Pegasi. This was the first planet discovered around a star using the radial velocity technique. This technique detects systematic shifts in the wavelengths of absorption lines in the star’s spectra over time due to the motion of the star around the star-planet center of mass. The planet orbiting 51 Pegasi has a mass of at least half Jupiter’s mass.

Question 5:Zoom out so that you can compare this planet to those in our solar system

(you can click-hold-drag to change the scale). Is this extrasolar planet like any in our

solar system? In what ways is it similar or different?

Question 6:Select the system HD 93083. Note that planet b is in this star’s CHZ.  This planet has a mass of at least 0.37 Jupiter masses (which is greater than the mass of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, making it a gas giant). Is this planet a likely candidate to have life like that on Earth? Why or why not?

Question 7:Note that Jupiter’s moon Europa is covered in water ice. What would Europa be like if it orbited HD 93083b?

Select the system Gliese 581. This system is notable for having some of the smallest and presumably earth-like planets yet discovered. Look especially at planets c and d which bracket the CHZ. In fact, there are researchers who believe that the CHZ of this star may include one or both of these planets. (Since there are several assumptions involved in the determination of the boundary of the CHZ, not all researchers agree where those limits should be drawn.) This system is the best candidate yet discovered for an earth-like planet near or in a CHZ.




> 1.9 MEarth


> 15.6 MEarth


> 5.4 MEarth


> 7.1 MEarth

The Time Evolution of Circumstellar Habitable Zones

We will now look at the evolution of star systems over time and investigate how that affects the circumstellar zone. We will focus exclusively on stellar evolution which is well understood and assume that planets remain in their orbits indefinitely. Many researchers believe that planets migrate due to gravitational interactions with each other and with smaller debris, but that is not shown in our simulator.

We will make use of the Time and Simulation Controls panel. This panel consists of a button and slider to control the passing of time and 3 horizontal strips:

· the first strip is a timeline encompassing the complete lifetime of the star with time values labeled

· the second strip represents the temperature range of the CHZ – the orange bar at the top indicates the inner boundary and the blue bar at the bottom the outer boundary. A black line is shown in between for times when the planet is within the CHZ.

· The bottom strip also shows the length of time the planet is in the CHZ in dark blue as well as labeling important events during the lifetime of a star such as when it leaves the main sequence.

Stars gradually brighten as they get older. They are building up a core of helium ash and the fusion region becomes slightly larger over time, generating more energy.

Question 8:Return to the none selectedmode and configure the simulator for Earth (a 1

M star at a distance of 1 AU). Note that immediately after our Sun formed Earth was in

the middle of the CHZ. Drag the timeline cursor forward and note how the CHZ moves

outward as the Sun gets brighter. Stop the time cursor at 4.6 billion years to represent the

present age of our solar system. Based on this simulation, how much longer will Earth be

in the CHZ?

Question 9:What is the total lifetime of the Sun (up to the point when it becomes a white dwarf and no longer supports fusion)?

Question 10:What happens to Earth at this time in the simulator?

You may have noticed the planet moving outwards towards the end of the star’s life. This is due to the star losing mass in its final stages. We know that life appeared on Earth early on but complex life did not appear until several billion years later. If life on other planets takes a similar amount of time to evolve, we would like to know how long a planet is in its CHZ to

evaluate the likelihood of complex life being present.

To make this determination, first set the timeline cursor to time zero, then drag the planet in the diagram so that it is just on the outer edge of CHZ. Then run the simulator until the planet is no longer in the CHZ. Record the time when this occurs – this is the total amount of time the planet spends in the CHZ. Complete the table for the range of stellar masses.

Question 11:It took approximately 4 billion years for complex life to appear on Earth. In which of the systems above would that be possible? What can you conclude about a star’s mass and the likelihood of it harboring complex life.

Questions In Psycholinguistics (FINAL PAPER)

Language is an important tool for storing, organizing, and retrieving information that has been acquired throughout one’s life, as well as for thinking, modifying, and sharing such information with others. Thus, researchers ask many questions about language and its use. For this assignment, complete the steps listed below:


1. Recent research has shown that bilingualism shapes the human mind. What are some of the short-term and/or long-term consequences of bilingualism on information processing? Include at least two sets of findings (e.g., speed of processing and vocabulary size) in your paper.

  • 1. Review the literature on the selected topic. For your selected topic, use at least three peer-reviewed articles that can answer the questions related to it.
  • 2. Summarize the evidence you have found and then critically examine it. Engage your critical thinking skills. For instance, ask yourself if the available evidence is sufficient to support the interpretations that researchers have proposed, and/or whether there are ambiguities and unknowns.
  • 3. Begin your paper with an introduction to the selected topic in which you define all concepts that will be discussed in the paper. Include a brief summary of the content of the selected article according to the guidelines described above.
  • 4. Analyze the key findings, illustrating the consistencies and inconsistencies.
  • 5. Include a conclusion expressing your thoughts about the strengths and weaknesses of the available evidence. If possible, suggest the course that future research should take if answers are less than conclusive.

The Questions in Psycholinguistics Final Paper

  • Must be five to six double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.).
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must use at least three peer-reviewed sources in addition to the course text.
    • The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible SourcesPreview the document table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Course Project: Intervention Development

This week we return to our Leadership Intervention Project at Prison X (Prision Case is Attached). It is recommended you review your Week 1 papers (attached) and the feedback provided from your instructor to fill in any performance gaps from Part I to Part II.


  • Analyze the warden’s leadership repertoire and its impact on the organization, its culture, and how the mood of the organization may affect the various operational components.
  • Assess the five critical need areas requiring immediate intervention.
  • Develop a minimum of three intervention strategies for each of the five critical need areas identified above. The strategies should seek to minimize dissonant styles and create resonant leadership.
  • Create a detailed plan for conducting the interventions.

Important hint: You might find it helpful to begin each section of the paper by discussing the key themes and cues you observe. Then, do research on those key themes to both broaden and deepen your evaluation of the case and your understanding of the important issues. In the final product, about half your written evaluation of each topic should be research. About half should be application to the case study.

Submission Details:

  • Submit your evaluation in a 3 page Microsoft Word document.
  • Cite any sources in the APA format.

Recommendation for the level one headings for the body of your paper (in addition to your introduction and conclusion):

Leadership and Organizational Impact

Critical Needs Assessment

Intervention Strategy

Intervention Plan

Public Health And Education

Unit 8 Assignment 

Unit outcomes addressed in this Assignment:

· Apply health education strategies to protect and promote optimal physical and mental health.

· Design a PowerPoint regarding how to implement an educational program that promotes public health.

Course outcome assessed/addressed in this Assignment:

HS499-4: Public Health and Education: Integrate basic knowledge of the core disciplines within public health and deliver educational programs that promote public health.


· Create a 15-20 slide presentation that promotes public health.

· Be sure to integrate the core disciplines within public health.

· Create a narration script in the notes section of your PowerPoint


– Presentation topic promotes public health.

– Public health core disciplines have been integrated into the promotion presentation.

– Presentation is 15-20 slides.

Healthcare Administration


There are many forces that impact health delivery systems. Choose one aspect that influences how health delivery systems are challenged, and describe the issue. Examples include, but are not limited to, access to care, quality health care improvement, lack of coordinated care, continuity of care (medical home), etc.

After reviewing the Logic Model Development Guide from the readings, create a logic model for a new program you would like to fund to address this impact on the health delivery system. Discuss how the program can be applied to reduce the impact on the health delivery system.


  • The paper should be at least 975 words in length
  • Your paper must include a logic model that you create (explaining the content of a logic model is insufficient)
  • Include a list of references in APA format, including the information used from the modules.

InfoTech In Global Economy

Provide a reflection of at least 500 words (or 2 pages double spaced) of how the knowledge, skills, or theories of this course have been applied or could be applied, in a practical manner to your current work environment. If you are not currently working, share times when you have or could observe these theories and knowledge could be applied to an employment opportunity in your field of study.


Provide a 500 word (or 2 pages double spaced) minimum reflection.

Use of proper APA formatting and citations. If supporting evidence from outside resources is used those must be properly cited.

Share a personal connection that identifies specific knowledge and theories from this course.

Demonstrate a connection to your current work environment. If you are not employed, demonstrate a connection to your desired work environment.

Conduct an Internet search for a code of ethics that aligns with Master of Public Health.

A code of ethics is important in guiding decision making, when values  are in conflict, and in helping to define acceptable behavior for  members of an organization. In your fourth study activity for this unit,  you conducted an Internet search for a professional code of ethics from  an association aligned with your field or specialization. Examine that  code in preparation for this discussion. Also, refer to the assigned  readings from the first study activity for this unit.


In your initial discussion post:


  1. Include the name of the organization that publishes the code of  ethics that you found, such as the National Association for Healthcare  Quality. Include the URL for the code of ethics.
  2. Use the information in the readings or the research you conducted to guide your choices, and complete the following:
  3. Identify an actual ethical challenge you have experienced or  observed in you professional life (personnel issues, confidentiality,  patient records, communication, et cetera) to use as a foundation for  this discussion question. Remember not to include any information that  might breach confidentiality.
  4. After selecting your ethical challenge, review the code of  ethics appropriate for your profession, along with any relevant  research, and determine how the ethical challenge you identified might  be resolved.
  5. Examine the factors that contribute to the ethical challenge and how it might affect the organization.
  6. Propose a solution that:
    1. Aligns with your professional code of ethics. 
    2. Is supported with recent relevant research.
  7. Explain how you, as a leader, will support and guide the process to resolve the ethical challenge.

This is only an essay!!! No headers/footers or title page!!! Just 2-3 paragraphs with the references on the same page (in other words no page break needed).

Effective Listening in Interpersonal Communication

Directions: Download this worksheet to your computer and save itusing this submission title: “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.doc”. The file name identifies you and indicates to your Instructor that your worksheet is available to grade. Please fill in the answers in the boxes provided by TYPING in your answers. If you need more space than is provided, the box will expand as you write. Do not write your answers in a separate document because your Instructor will use the rubric after each question to grade that section of this worksheet. You may use the rubrics as a guide to make sure you completed each question correctly.:

Please use chapter 5.1 and 5.2 of our Communication in the Real World: An Introduction to Communication Studies textbook toanswer the following questions:

Question 1

According to our book, (chapter 5, section 5.1) the listening process happens in five steps but they are notalways in order. In other words, they don’t have to happen one after the other. As two people communicate the steps of the process can happen at the same time.However, we can identify certain components: receiving, interpreting, recalling, evaluating, and responding.

Describe a real or imagined brief conversation between two people. Label in parenthesis where each of the steps is happening within this conversation. Write at least 100 words.

Insert your answer below. If you need more space, the box will automatically expand as you hit Enter.

Question 2


There are different types of listening styles based on people’s personalities, past experiences, culture, etc. Refer to chapter 5, section 5.1 and answer the following questions:

Which style of listening best describes you and why? Which style do you have the most difficulty with or like the least and why? Write at least 50 words.

Insert your answer below. If you need more space, the box will automatically expand as you hit Enter.

Question 3

Bad listening practices can get in the way of effective listening in interpersonal communication (chapter 5, section 5.2).

Of the bad listening practices listed in this section, which two do you use the most? Why do you think you use them more than the others? What can you do to help prevent or lessen these practices? Please use different examples than the book and write at least 100 words.

Insert your answer below. If you need more space, the box will automatically expand as you hit Enter.

Question 4

Effective listening skills can be learned. But as you have read, there are different listening context and different reasons to listen.  

Look at section 5.3 of chapter 5. Explain whether you would rather become a better critical listener or a better empathetic listener and why. Choose one or two of the strategies suggested to improve the listening skill you chose and explain why you were drawn to it and how you can implement them in your own life. Please write at least 100 words.

Insert your answer below. If you need more space, the box will automatically expand as you hit Enter.

nterpersonal Communication Interaction.

Write a 1-2 page paper that includes the following:

  • A description of the scene that you have chosen and the characters involved.  This should be brief, and tell us what took place in the scene.
  • An analysis of the verbal and nonverbal communication that took place between the characters in that scene. You should be looking at the different verbal communication concepts and nonverbal communication types you see taking place in the scene.  You will want to write about these, pointing to the specific cues from the scene, that were displaying the concept or type of communication that you identified.  You should also use your week 3 resources to support your claims, showing that you are applying the concepts and types of communication properly.  An example of this is:“Nonverbal communication has behaviors that are easily recognized. In this scene there is body movement, moving the head around, and pointing the finger by Gerry. This is called kinesics, the study of how we use body movement and facial expressions (Hahn, Laura K and Paynton, Scott T, 2016

Survey Of Communication

  • Read Chapter 3 of the textbook Survey of Communication Study found in the Week 3 Resources. Consider some of the nonverbal ways in which you communicate your emotions.
  • View the media located in this week’s Learning Resources. Think about how Sandra was able to relate interpersonal communication principles she was learning in class to issues taking place in her own life.
  • Find a picture of two people that are engaged in an interpersonal situation. This picture should show more than one of the types of nonverbal communication (from Chapter 3 of the textbook Survey of Communication Study) taking place.

Post by Day 3 a 1 to 2 paragraph discussion. In this post you should:

  1. Insert the picture you choose in your initial post.
  2. Describe what types of nonverbal communication you see displayed in the picture (refer to those found in the section titled “Types of Nonverbal Communication” in Chapter 3 of the Survey of Communication Study textbook) and explain how you see it displayed in the picture. Be sure to use your course resources when answering this.
  3. Based on the nonverbal cues you see, explain your interpretation of the conversation: what do you think the conversation could be about? For example, is this a conflict of a friendly conversation?